I would personally favor Google. Both FB and Google would benefit from it, but we would likely benefit more from Google taking it over. Facebook was lucky it didn't really should compete with something as "good" as facebook, the competition was just lacking a lot of features along with a global approach. Just take a look at VHS and Betamax. Howdy just wanted to give you a quick heads up.
The text in your post seem to be running off the screen in Opera. I'm not sure if this is a format issue or something to do with browser compatibility but I thought I'd post to let you know.
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If a woman felt the cold, she could wear woollen flesh-coloured stockings under the silk ones, but this widened the leg and so was quickly abandoned. In the evening their outfit became more masculine with pajamas becoming popular after the First World War. In fact, pajamas were actually first worn as at-home outfits, as described in Vogue in Nevertheless, the nightdress was not abandoned, it just became narrower. Elegant women of the s wore waspies to pull in their waists under their Jacques Fath suits or their Christian Dior designer cocktail dresses.
Attached to the former was a boned half-cup bra: A woman could also choose a bra, a garment which was becoming more widely available. A model with or without straps could be chosen, depending on the occasion. The chemise had disappeared. In its place, a slip with straps was worn over the pieces of corsetry, and the corsetry was worn right next to the skin. The waspie was worn with a long, full petticoat in nylon fibre which fluffed out the New Look skirts.
Under this petticoat the bloomers gave way to form-fitting briefs. Under the petticoat, nylon stockings were worn, held up by garters. Once she divested herself of her daytime underwear, the New Look fashion plate preferred nightdresses.
They could be very long or knee-length. As for pajamas, they were less in vogue. After the Second World War and during the s, the number of undergarments was reduced and the dichotomy between lingerie and corsetry began to ease off.
Under her A-line dress, young women this new fashion was aimed at the young: On certain models, garters were fixed inside the panties. Other women chose briefs and bras worn with panty-hose. Underwear was becoming a second skin. This was the idea behind panty-hose or the all-in-one Dim body, for example.
In , Mitoufle was the first brand of panty-hose in France, and it was only in that Dimanche it became Dim in invented seamless stockings and, due to the prices they charged, panty-hose became accessible to all. The s saw the start of the bra and brief combinations that are still worn today and which, despite the limited number of garments, enclose the female body… until the G-string made its appearance in the s.
These innovations made healthier underwear which was more pleasant to wear. Cotton went hand in hand with the growing trend for natural living. It became a symbol of fresh, pure lingerie and was the favourite underwear material in the s. It is still widely used today combined with Lycra. Animal materials are used less for underwear these days because they are fragile and difficult to maintain. Since the 16th century solid materials such as horn, ivory or whalebone have been called upon for use in corsetry.
They were used for the busks inside basques and for stays. Whalebone was the only material that was flexible enough and which predated steel and elastic. Whales were hunted from the 12th century in the Bay of Biscay on the Spanish coast , and then, in the 17th century, the whale industry moved to Greenland. In the 18th and 19th centuries leather and suede began to be used for certain corsets for rigidity and decoration.
These animal materials made way in the 20th century for steel. Silk culture came to France relatively late. It was already common in China and India when it arrived in France in the 14th century, at the time when the Papal court moved to Avignon. Silk weavers set up in Avignon to meet the demands of the popes. When the popes returned to Rome, some silk mills stayed in the Uzès region, then opened in Lyon.
It also secretes a very fine and remarkably supple thread. Silk insulates very well, is extremely soft to the touch, and is perfect for lingerie. The principal silk fabrics are made in cloth, muslin, taffeta, pongee or crêpe weave. Others are satin, jersey and twill for girdles and corsets. Silk is difficult to wash, however.
It is fragile and expensive which means it is not of interest to clients of modest means. Nevertheless, its softness and shine give an immense power of seduction. The French silk mills expanded rapidly in the 17th and 18th centuries and provided France a monopoly in terms of fashion.
The silk mills in Lyon manufactured all types of undergarments, petticoats, luxurious stockings for ceremonial wear in European courts and brocade exterior of stays. In the 19th century, the silk mills of Lyon were still appreciated in the same way.
It was only when synthetic fibres, which could imitate the shine of silk, were invented that silk was used less for underwear and was limited to luxury lingerie. Until the Second World War, petticoats were made out of silk; corsets were covered in silk satin, and nightclothes were made out of satin, velvet, cretonne, or silk crêpe. Today, silk is still important for designers when they create luxury underwear, and for sexy nightwear such as baby-doll nightdresses.
Wool has always been used, in the countryside especially, for stockings, corsets and petticoats because it is warm. It became popular for underwear again in the 19th century, and was appreciated because it was hard-wearing, supple and especially because of its thermal qualities.
For underwear, the main wool fabrics are cloth, serge, jersey and flannel. This last was said to protect against cholera. Bloomers and petticoats were made out of flannel and corsets which were particularly recommended for cycling. One of the merits of wool for Doctor Jaeger was the fact that it was porous. Of course, this idea was refuted by the creators of Aertex and Viyella. A large woollen underwear industry was developing over the whole of Europe.
This type of underwear was very successful at first although later wool was passed over in favour of more aerated fabrics. Viscose is the name given to cellulose threads and textile fibres which are produced by the viscose process the material, in a viscous state, is poured onto a drawplate which is then immersed in a tank which coagulates the fibres as soon as they emerge. For continuous thread the name given is rayon-viscose, and for broken thread, bonded fibre viscose.
The first rayon thread was invented in by the Frenchman Hilaire Bernigaud, the Count of Chardonnet23 who presented his first rayon articles at the Universal Exhibition in Other chemists were doing the same type of research, particularly in England where Cross, Bevan and Beadle patented their discoveries in Rayon was manufactured in England from and in the United States of America in due to the support of Courtauld.
Rayon was actually only used for clothing after the s, and the most popular rayon fabrics were crêpe, organdie, twill and jersey. Petticoats, slips, bloomers and nightclothes were made out of it. Now all women could afford luxurious-looking underwear at a lower price. Nylon also brought about great changes.
Dupont de Nemours Inc began research into the first synthetic thread in This research was lead by Doctor Wallace H. Carroters and his team. The first nylon stockings were presented at the New York World Fair in and they went on sale in in the United States of America. During the Second World War, nylon was strictly reserved for parachutes, and clothing in Europe was rationed. So underwear had to be made out of household linen this was already the case for modest pre-war families and women dyed their legs to give the illusion of stockings.
After , nylon became very popular and allowed lingerie to be accessible to everyone. It shone like silk, was easy to maintain and was affordable. At the end of the 20th century laboratories began to create more synthetic fibres, first to make sports underwear which held firm and aerated the body. Sports bras were made of polyamide, elastane or a mix of these fibres. This underwear was made from micro fibres composed of microfilaments and was very light, seamless and often with controlling properties such as Dim control.
In addition to synthetic materials, underwear needed elastic materials made from latex or rubber, for example. Once again, this new material was introduced through sportswear. The first corset reinforced with rubber was presented in at the Universal Exhibition in London, but the first elastic corset in latex was only sold in The development of elastic fabrics made of latex posed a major problem, as latex coagulates.
It has to be mixed with ammonia to maintain its liquid state. Threads are made out of it and it is then woven Dunlop improved this process. Elastic progressively replaced boning, steel and lacing.
In addition to this, circular knitting machines were being designed to develop girdles which were entirely made of rubber. Latex was knitted into a sort of fabric. It was used by all brands, some of them perfected its usage such as Kestos and Warner who introduced two-way elasticity. At the end of the s, researchers developed a more versatile fibre: Lycra, which was patented in by Dupont de Nemours. It had all the properties of rubber without its disadvantages. It was up to four times more resistant, three time lighter, and resistant to abrasion, perspiration and damage from detergents and lotions.
Lycra was first used for sportswear such as bathing costumes and bodies, and then was introduced for underwear. It was elastic and followed the shape of the body, as described by Vogue in Finally, lingerie would not have as much charm if it was not decorated.
Lace made its appearance in the 16th century. Venetian lace was made on needle-point and Flanders lace on a spindle. The lace was made with white linen threads and was used to trim chemises and bloomers. Flanders and Italy supplied the whole of Europe with lace. To avoid this mass importation, Colbert divested himself of foreign lace makers and set up Crown factories in France: Valenciennes, Chantilly and Alençon were famous for their lace which decorated numerous undergarments.
In the first machine-made lace appeared, developed by the Englishman Mr Heathcoat. It was less hard-wearing but the price was lower and the machine-made lace could imitate that of Valenciennes, Alençon and Puy.
It was perfected in due to a jacquard technique adapted in France to the English production process. It remained popular throughout the 19th century. After the Second World War, latex and elastane were added to give elasticity. Finally the New Look prioritised machine-made lace which was now woven with nylon threads. Today it is made with ribbons and beaded embroidery to decorate bras, briefs and G-strings.
Ornamental embroidery is done with thread: In the 18th century, the outside of stays and the hems of petticoats were embroidered, and today the front of briefs.
At the beginning of the 21st century, underwear is designed to be more and more like jewellery: Is lingerie becoming jewellery? Bright colours were associated with prostitutes, apart from stockings in soft colours like pink, and blue, and patriotic colours which were worn during the French Revolution.
In the 19th century elegant women wore grey or black stockings. You should notice her feet or her shoes [ The falsely prudish society of the 19th century preferred white for lingerie, particularly in England during the Victorian era. Apart from chemises, petticoats and bloomers, it was considered good form to have black or white corsetry but never colours which were considered excessively luxurious by the Baroness of Staff in Cabinet de toilette Nevertheless, in the second half of the 19th century, women sometimes dared to wear petticoats and bloomers in yellow or red as worn by Scarlett in Gone with the Wind Fabrics, decoration and their colours now changed from one season to another.
Between and , pink or sky-blue underwear began to be worn. In , Vogue showed corsets in blue satin. The first Petit Bateau briefs were in silky white, pink and occasionally blue cotton. Colours were still pale and soft, evoking ideas of virginity and purity.
Blue was the colour associated with the Virgin Mary. In the s and s, the palette diversified with more pink, yellow, purple and jade green, sometimes decorated with cream-coloured ribbons. For evening, women dared to wear transparent black. Elegant women particularly liked black Milan silk decorated with cream or beige ribbons.
In the s pastel colours became popular: Dark colours such as red, burgundy or black became popular later in the decade. In the s black and white were once more the colours of choice, in particular for girdles made of black or white lace and lined in pastel netting. But whiter than white was back, trimmed abundantly with lace, embroidery and ribbons. Nevertheless, new colours were being introduced, such as coffee, turquoise, tea-rose, coral, peach and also delicate prints of flowers and stripes.
In the s colour took over undergarments. Unified pastels were displaced by bright, even garish, psychedelic colours and overall prints. Panties were flowered, polka-dotted or striped in fuchsia, orange, turquoise and apple green. On the other hand, in the s, prints were no longer fashionable for underwear but were used in daywear or nightwear.
There were numerous striped pajamas or floral nightdresses. Bras, briefs and tights were popular in single, daring colours such as apricot, olive green, coffee, fuchsia and turquoise. Gradually, flesh colour and its derivatives became more widespread in underwear. This development was linked to the new concept of underwear being a second skin and the desire for it to be as discreet as possible.
The first stockings and bathing costumes in flesh tones appeared at the dawn of the 19th century, during the Directoire period, because of its extremely transparent dresses. But this change was brief, and white came back in force. Flesh, pink and peach colours became common for stockings around Flesh was extremely popular in the s and s, a period when the body was admired and simplicity was the order of the day.
Later, some brands such as Princesse Tam-Tam introduced decorative patterns like tartan, fruit prints and flowers embroidered with little bows. These patterns were fresh and had a child-woman image. Eventually, in the s, lingerie became more sophisticated and adopted the bright colours normally reserved for prostitutes: Underwear took the upper hand and was eccentric and arrogant.
Nightdresses were worn as summer dresses, vests took the place of t-shirts and corsets were worn for evening. Celebrities in show business often wore visible, brightly-coloured underwear.
Madonna sang in a green corset edged with black lace and Britney Spears wore a bubble-gum pink G-string over her pants. To sum up, colour is vital in underwear and wants to make a statement. It is true that underwear illustrates liberal society, but it is a society which often verges on the vulgar. Notes 1 See chapter 2. This, and all these other works, were written by men.
All these terms are explained in the glossary. In , Arabella Kennedy corseted monkies to show the harmful effect of corsets. The company overcame a serious crisis in when laundries became commonplace, proving that the slogan was vulnerable.
Adapted and illustrated do be posted by Leopoldo Costa. La antropofagia deja tras de si un rastro de información que puede ser capturada por los científicos.
Así se publico en Science en La evisceración, el despiece, la descarnación y la fragmentación que tiene lugar con la depredación de otros congéneres por parte de los homínidos deja unas huellas inconfundibles, que los expertos en tafonomía son capaces de reconocer, dada la singularidad del impacto que se registra en la superficie de los restos anatómicos canibalizados.
Examinadas al microscopio electrónico las evidencias fueron del todo confirmadas, pues una gran parte de los restos esqueléticos analizados presentaban marcas que coincidían con la morfología que hemos descrito. La intencionalidad es, sobretodo, cortar ligamentos, romper articulaciones y tener acceso a lugares anatómicos que directamente con la boca se hace difícil. No tan sólo existen estas marcas debido a la acción de cortar, sino que hay algunas relacionadas con la limpieza de tejido y con el levantamiento del periostio.
Diversas huellas La percusión con martillos de piedra también se realiza para poder acceder al tuétano, que se encuentra en el interior de los huesos largos, y al interior de la bóveda craneal.
El impacto sobre estas superficies deja una serie de esquirlas características de esta acción que también son reconocibles. De todo ello se puede inferir el comportamiento caníbal practicado por Homo antecessor al final del Pleistoceno inferior. Todo este espectro de actividad se ha registrado en el estrato Aurora del nivel 6 de la Gran Dolina. Compilación, adaptación y ilustración de Leopoldo Costa.
Como todo mundo aprendeu na escola, Anchieta é o apóstolo do Brasil. Feito papa com o esmagador apoio de Madri,Gregório 15, grande aliado da Sociedade de Jesus SJ , canonizou o primeiro time dos jesuítas espanhóis em Talvez por causa de seu pró-lusitanismo. Ativo nas missões e na conquista do Brasil, Anchieta vestiu a batina portuguesa de corpo inteiro. Fator que deve ter pesado negativamente nos anos , quando o antagonismo luso-espanhol se acentuava.
Muito mais identificado com Portugal do que com a Espanha, Anchieta trouxe entretanto de Tenerife, de onde saiu aos 14 anos, duas referências capitais. A primeira foi o conhecimento da língua basca, idioma de seu pai, nacionalista basco deportado para Tenerife. A segunda referência atlântica de Anchieta foi a sua familiaridade com a violência colonial. Anchieta reencontrou em Piratininga a pilhagem sertaneja das entradas, dessa vez capturando índios; e, na Bahia, a pilhagem marítima,desembarcando negros.
Parte desses africanos, traficados pelos jesuítas de Angola associados a Anchieta, era entregue ao Colégio da Bahia. Desafiados,Anchieta e a hierarquia da ordem recambiaram o padre antiescravista para a Europa. A fazenda de Santa Cruz, que lhes pertencia — hoje sede da base aérea de mesmo nome, na zona oeste da capital fluminense — , era a maior propriedade escravista das Américas por volta de , concentrado mais de mil cativos negros e mulatos.
Conforme os dados do padre Toninho, a Igreja Católica no país contava em com 16 mil sacerdotes. Paulo" de 20 de julho de Adaptado e ilustrado para ser postado por Leopoldo Costa.
Vinegar is not taken lightly in Modena. Aweeklong vinegar conference features the mayor and food dignitaries from around Italy and the world. Not until my second year living in Modena was I able to crack into the secret world of the vinegar elite and get a bottle for myself.
I stumbled into this illustrious society when I made a grave error. I told Franco, the owner of the pet store in Vicolo Forni, about our Sunday drive up into the hills above Bologna with a couple of American friends. Once the words left my mouth, I wished I could have reached out and stuffed them back under my tongue. I blabbed to Franco how well we ate at a little trattoria, enjoying the delicious crescentini, a sort of flat bread, which we were told came from around Bologna.
Franco was shocked and perhaps even a little offended. Then he breaks into a smile. The man who led me around the little factory with industrial stainless-steel casks let me taste their very good approximation of the tradizionale balsamic. The company put dozens of different labels on the bottles of this vinegar to send all over the world. Neapolitans are trying to steal our recipe! I wiped away the cobwebs over the door, and he wiped a grubby window with his sleeve to let in a ray of light.
In old times, balsamico was given as a priceless dowry and still today is usually exchanged as a gift since all the time and effort to produce the vinegar makes it far too expensive to buy.
An exchange student from the United States staying in Spilamberto, just outside of Modena and the real home of balsamic vinegar, was clandestinely offered vinegar by a high school classmate.
Franco and his wife, Giordana, pick Katy and me up early Sunday morning to take us for a breakfast of cappuccini and heart-stopping deep-fried dough called gnocco fritto.
We then risk the dense fog of the Padana plains, driving dangerously fast to reach their house in the country and taste this Modenese elixir. We have the best pork in the world here, and all he wants to eat is salad! Besides, I love it when the whole house has this fantastic odor of vinegar. We add a little to the biggest barrel since almost a quarter of the liquid evaporates every year. Nearly half of the rock is eaten away by the acid of the wine inside.
Once a year, the vinegar is decanted from the second smallest barrel into the mother barrel, from the third smallest into the second, and so on. Every year, an expert from the balsamic vinegar consortium, like a wine sommelier, tours the various acetaia vinegar makers to make sure the process is going as planned. Then you have to throw away all your bad vinegar, which was begun more than a hundred years ago.
This is a disaster for the family. For us Modenesi, we care a lot about preserving this tradition of balsamico, and I hope in the future someone will keep looking after my barrels to produce the real vinegar from Modena.
After the tour, Franco bestows upon us a tiny bottle of his dark brew. I carefully wrap paper around the four-ounce bottle of precious liquid to avoid any disastrous cracks or unnecessary shaking. We make it home safely, and the vinegar has survived. The balsamic tang of the vinegar is addicting. As with any bad habit, the absence of the desired object leaves us wanting more. Over the next week, we flatter both her and Franco separately that their vinegar is indeed the tastiest.
Adapted and illustrated to be posted by Leopoldo Costa. Pourtant, de récents travaux avaient déjà quelque peu mis à mal cette théorie pour le continent africain. Ce mélange tardif, qui ne rentre pas dans le schéma démographique classique et témoigne de la structure socioéconomique particulière de ces populations, a néanmoins été par la suite très intense: Selon eux, ils pourraient être liés aux pressions environnementales différentes auxquelles ces ethnies ont été soumises par le passé, y compris à celles exercées par les agents pathogènes.
Dans "Science Magazine n. Dactylographié et adapté pour être posté par Leopoldo Costa. A estratégia dessas butiques de carne é ampliar a gama de produtos comercializados e a oferta de serviços agregados. Segundo a consultora do Sebrae-SP Karyna Muniz, o objetivo das lojas é aumentar o tíquete médio gasto estimado de cada cliente por compra e a margem de lucro. Neste ano, estima-se que cada brasileiro consuma 42 quilos.
A empresa também oferece cursos de gastronomia, livros de receita em redes sociais, entrega em casa e espaço para clientes cozinharem e receberem amigos. É uma necessidade de mercado. Cada um de seus 2. Segundo Mauricio Nogueira, da Agroconsult, o mercado de carne gourmet tende a crescer. Uma das apostas dos supermercados para o Mundial, as vendas de carnes decepcionaram.
As ações tiveram reflexo nos preços. Influenciado pelo consumo interno aquecido e pelo bom desempenho das exportações, o boi gordo também vem de uma sequência de alta no preço: Texto de Tatiana Freitas publicado na "Folha de S. Paulo" de 27 de julho de A spetacular find in Indonesia reveals that a strikingly different hominid shared the earth with our kind in the not so distant past.
On the island of Flores in Indonesia, villagers have long told tales of a diminutive, upright walking creature with a lopsided gait, a voracious appetite, and soft, murmuring speech. But last October, an alluring alternative came to light. A team of Australian and Indonesian researchers excavating a cave on Flores unveiled the remains of a lilliputian human — one that stood barely a meter tall — whose kind lived as recently as 13, years ago.
The announcement electrified the paleoanthropology community. Homo sapiens was supposed to have had the planet to itself for the past 25 millennia, free from the company of other humans following the apparent demise of the Neandertals in Europe and Homo erectus in Asia.
Furthermore, hominids this tiny were known only from fossils of australopithecines Lucy and the like that lived nearly three million years ago — long before the emergence of H. No one would have predicted that our own species had a contemporary as small and primitive-looking as the little Floresian. Neither would anyone have guessed that a creature with a skull the size of a grapefruit might have possessed cognitive capabilities comparable to those of anatomically modern humans.
Isle of Intrigue This is not the first time Flores has yielded surprises. In archaeologists led by Michael J. Morwood of the University of New England in Armidale, Australia, reported having discovered crude stone artifacts some , years old in the Soa Basin of central Flores. Although no human remains turned up with the tools, the implication was that H.
To the team, the find showed H. Indeed, the earliest accepted date for boat-building was 40, to 60, years ago, when modern humans colonized Australia. The other early fauna on Flores probably got there by swimming or accidentally drifting over on flotsam. Humans are not strong enough swimmers to have managed that voyage, but skeptics say they may have drifted across on natural rafts.
Hoping to document subsequent chapters of human occupation of the island, Morwood and Radien P. Soejono of the Indonesian Center for Archaeology in Jakarta turned their attention to a large limestone cave called Liang Bua located in western Flores. Indonesian archaeologists had been excavating the cave intermittently since the s, depending on funding availability, but workers had penetrated only the uppermost deposits.
Morwood and Soejono set their sights on reaching bedrock and began digging in July But it was not until nearly the end of the third season of field work that diagnostic hominid material in the form of an isolated tooth surfaced.
Morwood brought a cast of the tooth back to Armidale to show to his department colleague Peter Brown. Seven days later Morwood received word that the Indonesians had recovered a skeleton. The Australians boarded the next plane to Jakarta. Peculiar though the premolar was, nothing could have prepared them for the skeleton, which apart from the missing arms was largely complete.
The pelvis anatomy revealed that the individual was bipedal and probably a female, and the tooth eruption and wear indicated that it was an adult. Yet it was only as tall as a modern three-year-old, and its brain was as small as the smallest australopithecine brain known. There were other primitive traits as well, including the broad pelvis and the long neck of the femur.
In other respects, however, the specimen looked familiar. Its small teeth and narrow nose, the overall shape of the braincase and the thickness of the cranial bones all evoked Homo. Brown spent the next three months analyzing the enigmatic skeleton, catalogued as LB1 and affectionately nicknamed the Hobbit by some of the team members, after the tiny beings in J. The decision about how to classify it did not come easily.
Impressed with the characteristics LB1 shared with early hominids such as the australopithecines, he initially proposed that it represented a new genus of human. On further consideration, however, the similarities to Homo proved more persuasive. Based on the 18,year age of LB1, one might have reasonably expected the bones to belong to H. But when Brown and his colleagues considered the morphological characteristics of small-bodied modern humans — including normal ones, such as pygmies, and abnormal ones, such as pituitary dwarfs—LB1 did not seem to fit any of those descriptions.
Pygmies have small bodies and large brains — the result of delayed growth during puberty, when the brain has already attained its full size. And individuals with genetic disorders that produce short stature and small brains have a range of distinctive features not seen in LB1 and rarely reach adulthood, Brown says. Conversely, he notes, the Flores skeleton exhibits archaic traits that have never been documented for abnormal small-bodied H.
What LB1 looks like most, the researchers concluded, is a miniature H. Describing the find in the journal Nature, they assigned LB1 as well as the isolated tooth and an arm bone from older deposits to a new species of human, Homo floresiensis.
They further argued that it was a descendant of H. Biologists have long recognized that mammals larger than rabbits tend to shrink on small islands, presumably as an adaptive response to the limited food supply. They have little to lose by doing so, because these environments harbor few predators.
On Flores, the only sizable predators were the Komodo dragon and another, even larger monitor lizard. Animals smaller than rabbits, on the other hand, tend to attain brobdingnagian proportions — perhaps because bigger bodies are more energetically efficient than small ones. Liang Bua has yielded evidence of that as well, in the form of a rat as robust as a rabbit. Received paleoanthropological wisdom holds that culture has buffered us humans from many of the selective pressures that mold other creatures — we cope with cold, for example, by building fires and making clothes, rather than evolving a proper pelage.
The discovery of a dwarf hominid species indicates that, under the right conditions, humans can in fact respond in the same, predictable way that other large mammals do when the going gets tough. Hints that Homo could deal with resource fluxes in this manner came earlier in from the discovery of a relatively petite H. Curiouser and Curiouser H.
What the hominid reportedly managed to accomplish with such a modest organ was nothing less than astonishing. Big brains are a hallmark of human evolution. In the space of six million to seven million years, our ancestors more than tripled their cranial capacity, from some cubic centimeters in Sahelanthropus, the earliest putative hominid, to a whopping 1, cubic centimeters on average in modern folks.
Archaeological evidence indicates that behavioral complexity increased correspondingly. Experts were thus fairly certain that large brains are a prerequisite for advanced cultural practices. Yet whereas the peabrained australopithecines left behind only crude stone tools at best and most seem not to have done any stone working at all , the comparably gray-matter-impoverished H.
The bulk of the artifacts from Liang Bua are simple flake tools struck from volcanic rock and chert, no more advanced than the implements made by late australopithecines and early Homo. But mixed in among the pygmy Stegodon remains excavators found a fancier set of tools, one that included finely worked points, large blades, awls and small blades that may have been hafted for use as spears.
To the team, this association suggests that H. Many of the Stegodon bones are those of young individuals that one H. But some belonged to adults that weighed up to half a ton, the hunting and transport of which must have been a coordinated group activity — one that probably required language, surmises team member Richard G. The discovery of charred animal remains in the cave suggests that cooking, too, was part of the cultural repertoire of H. That a hominid as cerebrally limited as this one might have had control of fire gives pause.
Humans are not thought to have tamed flame until relatively late in our collective cognitive development: Not only does it mean that another species of human coexisted with our ancestors just yesterday in geological terms, and that our genus is far more variable than expected, it raises all sorts of questions about brain size and intelligence. Perhaps it should come as no surprise, then, that controversy has accompanied their claims. Classification Clash It did not take long for alternative theories to surface.
Individuals afflicted with the most severe congenital form of microcephaly, primordial microcephalic dwarfism, die in childhood. But those with milder forms, though mentally retarded, can survive into adulthood.
Statistically comparing the head and face dimensions of LB1 with those of a 4,year old skull from Crete that is known to have belonged to a microcephalic, Henneberg found no significant differences between the two. Furthermore, he argued, the isolated forearm bone found deeper in the deposit corresponds to a height of to centimeters—the stature of many modern women and some men, not that of a dwarf — suggesting that larger-bodied people, too, lived at Liang Bua.
Antón of New York University disagrees with that assessment. Antón questions whether LB1 warrants a new species, however. The possibility exists that the LB1 specimen is a H. According to Colin P. Cameron of the University of Sydney, the small brain, the long neck of the femur and other characteristics suggest an ancestor along the lines of Homo habilis, the earliest member of our genus, rather than the more advanced H.
Wolpoff of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor wonders whether the Flores find might even represent an offshoot of Australopithecus. If LB1 is a descendant of H. Granted, if she descended from Australopithecus, which had massive jaws and teeth, one has to account for her relatively delicate jaws and dainty dentition. That, however, is a lesser evolutionary conundrum than the one posed by her tiny brain, he asserts.
After all, a shift in diet could explain the reduced chewing apparatus, but why would selection downsize intelligence? Finding an australopithecine that lived outside of Africa — not to mention all the way over in Southeast Asia — 18, years ago would be a first.
Members of this group were thought to have died out in Africa one and a half million years ago, never having left their mother continent. Perhaps, researchers reasoned, hominids needed long, striding limbs, large brains and better technology before they could venture out into the rest of the Old World. But the recent discovery of 1. Taking that into consideration, there is no a priori reason why australopithecines or habilines, for that matter could not have colonized other continents.
Troubling Tools Yet if Australopithecus made it out of Africa and survived on Flores until quite recently, that would raise the question of why no other remains supporting that scenario have turned up in the region. According to Wolpoff, they may have: In light of the Flores find, he says, those remains deserve reexamination. Begun of the University of Toronto. That is, as the Flores people dwarfed from H.
Because LB1 shares some key derived features with H. Philip Rightmire of Binghamton University agrees. Stanford University paleoanthropologist Richard Klein notes that the artifacts found near LB1 appear to include few, if any, of the sophisticated types found elsewhere in the cave.
This brings up the possibility that the modern-looking tools were produced by modern humans, who could have occupied the cave at a different time. Further excavations are necessary to determine the stratigraphic relation between the implements and the hominid remains, Klein opines.
Such efforts may turn up modern humans like us. The question then, he says, will be whether there were two species at the site or whether modern humans alone occupied Liang Bua — in which case LB1 was simply a modern who experienced a growth anomaly.
Stratigraphic concerns aside, the tools are too advanced and too large to make manufacture by a primitive, diminutive hominid likely, Groves contends. Although the Liang Bua implements allegedly date back as far as 94, years ago, which the team argues makes them too early to be the handiwork of H.
Of course, humans today exhibit considerable variation in gray matter volume, and great thinkers exist at both ends of the spectrum. Clues to its organization may reside on the interior of the braincase, however. Paleontologists can sometimes obtain latex molds of the insides of fossil skulls and then create plaster endocasts that reveal the morphology of the organ.
Then again, she muses, what happens if the convolutions look chimplike? Specialists have long wondered whether bigger brains fold differently simply because they are bigger or whether the reorganization reflects selection for increased cognition. Return to the Lost World Since submitting their technical papers to Nature, the Liang Bua excavators have reportedly recovered the remains of another five or so individuals, all of which fit the H.
None are nearly so complete as LB1, whose long arms turned up during the most recent field season. Such duplicate bones will be critical to their case that they have a population of these tiny humans as opposed to a bunch of scattered bones from one person.
That should in turn dispel concerns that LB1 was a diseased individual. Additional evidence may come from DNA: Jacob, the dean of Indonesian paleoanthropology, thinks LB1 was a microcephalic and allegedly ordered the transfer of it and the new, as yet undescribed finds for examination and safekeeping, despite strong objections from other staff members at the center.
At the time this article was going to press, the team was waiting for Jacob to make good on his promise to return the remains to Jakarta by January 1 of this year, but his reputation for restricting scientific access to fossils has prompted pundits to predict that the bones will never be studied again. Efforts to piece together the H. The possibilities are three-fold, he notes. Either the ancestor dwarfed on Flores and was possibly the maker of the ,year-old Soa Basin tools , or it dwindled on another island and later reached Flores, or the ancestor was small before it even arrived in Southeast Asia.
In fact, in many ways, LB1 more closely resembles African H. But whether these similarities indicate that H. Future excavations may connect the dots. The team plans to continue digging on Flores and Java and will next year begin work on other Indonesian islands, including Sulawesi to the north.
The hominid bones from Liang Bua now span the period from 95, to 13, years ago, suggesting to the team that the little Floresians perished along with the pygmy Stegodon because of a massive volcanic eruption in the area around 12, years ago, although they may have survived later farther east.
And the discoverers of H. The islands of Lombok and Sumbawa would have been natural stepping-stones for hominids traveling from Java or mainland Asia to Flores. Those that put down roots on these islands may well have set off on their own evolutionary trajectories. Perhaps, it has been proposed, some of these offshoots of the Homo lineage survived until historic times. On Flores, oral histories hold that the ebu gogo was still in existence when Dutch colonists settled there in the 19th century.
And Malay folklore describes another small, humanlike being known as the orang pendek that supposedly dwells on Sumatra to this day. But then [in September ] we found LB1. Essi infatti apparvero portavoce del gruppo dei dodici considerati quali capi dei credenti in Cristo. In occasione della Pentecoste poi, gli apostoli riuniti nel cenacolo sentirono posarsi su di loro lo Spirito Santo. In quello stesso giorno in Gerusalemme convennero persone di diverse nazionalità e circa tremila fedeli entrarono nel tempio.
Nella Chiesa primitiva gli apostoli furono riconosciuti come testimoni di Cristo, nonché guide spirituali e amministratori della comunità.
I primi nuclei di fedeli formarono subito le assemblee o ecclesiae da cui il nome di chiesa, conferito al luogo ove essi si incontrarono.
Durante le assemblee collettive cominciarono a leggersi e a commentarsi i testi sacri, si celebrarono i riti, ma si assisterono pure i più bisognosi, gli infermi e quanti risultavano abbandonati, attingendo a una cassa comune costituita da donazioni e lasciti di defunti.
Ai diaconi venne affidata la predicazione e due fra gli altri, Stefano e Filippo, assunsero una parte importante, sebbene la loro attività risultasse subordinata a quella degli apostoli, in quanto non testimoni di Gesù. Da allora il cristianesimo fu divulgato oltre la Giudea ove restarono in permanente attività numerosi Ellenisti.
A lui infatti risalirono i fondamenti della dottrina cristologica e di quella soteriologica: Al di là degli apostoli delle Chiese paoline, il primato apostolico di Paolo fu del tutto preciso. Egli riguardo alla sua comunità svolse il ruolo che i Dodici e Giacomo ebbero in Palestina.
In merito ai dirigenti ecclesiastici le fonti parlano di anziani — presbiteri — ispettori o sovrintendenti, vescovi o supervisori. I presbiteri furono i più anziani e i notabili delle comunità, i ministri delle funzioni liturgiche e gerarchiche, per mezzo delle quali essi conferirono grazie spirituali o carismi. Le Chiese paoline e quelle di Gerusalemme furono rette da un consiglio di dignitari, chiamati in modo alternativo presbiteri o episcopi, sotto la solidale sorveglianza del fondatore e dei suoi sostituti, Tito e Timoteo, che ordinarono diaconi e preti.
Le sedi episcopali non ebbero tutte eguale autorità e prestigio. Alcune collocate in centri pur meno importanti detennero una precisa preminenza. Particolarmente significativi furono i presuli di Antiochia, di Gerusalemme e di Costantinopoli. Anche la scelta teodosiana di tenere a Costantinopoli il II Concilio ecumenico ebbe come risultato quello di accrescere il prestigio della sua sede vescovile in rapporto a quelle di Antiochia e di Alessandria.
Agli inizi le riunioni cristiane si tennero in abitazioni private di fedeli benestanti, ma dai primi decenni del III secolo si formarono attraverso acquisti e donazioni le prime proprietà ecclesiastiche comprendenti luoghi di culto e cimiteri o catacombe.
Il cemeterium Cornelium, collegato alla basilica petriana, fu poi tra i primi e più autorevoli luoghi di culto mortuario. I maggiori esponenti pagani furono spesso professori e roccheforti del paganesimo rimasero solo le istituzioni culturali. Per quanto particolarmente riguarda la religione mitraica diffusasi in Oriente nel IV secolo a.
Infatti templi mitraici e cristiani sotterranei trovarono non di rado pari collocazione. Il carattere innovativo del messaggio cristiano e il contenuto delle beatitudini determinarono poi una profonda incomprensione con il mondo culturale tradizionale. Come capro espiatorio di quel rovinoso incendio dunque furono scelti i seguaci di Cristo in quanto attorno a loro aleggiavano pericolosi pregiudizi e quindi essi poterono essere facilmente colpevolizzati. La risposta di Traiano fu ambigua: Tuttavia il perdono avrebbe potuto essere concesso a chi avesse abiurato la propria fede, accettando di sacrificare agli dèi.
Quanto ai libelli di accusa anonimi essi non dovevano essere presi in considerazione. Le pressioni dei barbari si fecero allora sempre più forti e gli Augusti ritennero di poterle respingere guadagnandosi il favore degli dèi; di qui il ritorno a un conservatorismo religioso di antico stampo.
Tali principi reazionari scatenarono pertanto gravi persecuzioni durate sino agli inizi del IV secolo. Nella prima metà del III secolo inoltre si ebbe un editto di Settimio Severo del , inteso a vietare il proselitismo religioso, accomunando in un unico diniego ebrei e cristiani. La breve persecuzione, cessata con la scomparsa di Decio, fu concentrata a Roma, ove fu ucciso il vescovo Fabiano, in Egitto, in Africa, in Asia e fu accompagnata da tumulti popolari, ma non ebbe risultato positivo.
Altri imperatori in diverso contesto la ripresero e particolarmente sanguinosa fu quella di Valeriano , ispirata dal ministro Macriano, fanatico seguace del misticismo pagano. A questo proposito poi si deve precisare che è molto difficile raccogliere in questo senso notizie attendibili poiché mancano certificati di decesso e fonti che comprovino il numero effettivo dei processi e delle esecuzioni.
Il testo del suddetto editto è tramandato dai rescritti liciniani, riportati da Lattanzio e da Eusebio di Cesarea. In forza di tale ordinanza i cristiani vennero per la prima volta protetti contro le persecuzioni, e respirarono più agevolmente in un clima di libertà.
Essi per di più furono risarciti dei danni subiti dai beni della comunità durante gli anni di Diocleziano. Senza dubbio nella politica ecclesiastica costantiniana è difficile scorgere un criterio logico. Il periodo nel cui ambito gli storici collocano la sua conversione va comunque fra il e il Comunque, dopo il Costantino fu contraddistinto da una politica fortemente generosa verso le comunità africane e il vescovo di Cartagine.
Somme rilevanti furono da lui assegnate a Roma dove vennero donati ai testimoni della nuova fede e restaurati a spese dello stato immobili tra i quali la sede dei Laterani — trasformata nella basilica di San Giovanni — la prima basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano e quella di San Paolo fuori le Mura. Ai cristiani, inoltre, vennero assegnate rendite cospicue. Il risultato di tale atteggiamento fu la convocazione del Concilio di Sirmio del , nel cui corso vennero deposti i porporati ariani.
Tutte le chiese finite in mano ariana dovettero essere restituite ai cattolici. Il sinodo ebbe luogo a Costantinopoli — maggio —, vi parteciparono vescovi e nel suo corso fu redatta la definizione dogmatica, in cui furono dichiarate la consustanzialità e la distinzione delle tre persone della Trinità.
Essi vollero presentare il cristianesimo in termini accettabili alla cultura Ellenisti ca e forse espressero, amalgamandole alla nuova religione, antiche esperienze orientali. Comunque la predicazione della suddetta dottrina avrebbe potuto salvare solo un ristretto numero di uomini e tutto il resto fu dominato da un dualismo che divise il mondo in due sfere: La Chiesa poi fu fatta coincidere con una comunità di perfetti ; ai catecumeni più degni doveva essere riserbato il privilegio del battesimo, mentre da esso andavano esclusi tutti quanti fossero caduti ripetutamente nel peccato.
La categoria umana in forza dei suoi peccati ricevette un corpo e cadde sulla terra. Origène credette nella salvezza cui si poteva giungere per aiuto della divina provvidenza, ma il trionfo non fu definitivo.
Il mondo conobbe infatti nuove cadute e nuove redenzioni in un continuo divenire. Il Logos quindi non poté essere della stessa natura di Dio e non appartenne alla divinità ma fu una sorta di semidio. Fu questo pertanto un drammatico preludio a future, più radicali divisioni fra cattolici e ortodossi. Nonostante i contrastanti atteggiamenti assunti nei suoi riguardi nel corso dei primi secoli, la sede apostolica romana ebbe una serie di importanti riconoscimenti.
Leone Magno, il vincitore di Attila, fece valere le sue decisioni su Calcedonia, aprendo per primo la strada percorsa dopo di lui con maggior sicurezza da Gregorio Magno. Speciale funzione onorifica fu conferita anche al presule di Gerusalemme. Per diventare vescovi poi non fu più sufficiente essere soltanto catecumeni, ma fu necessario avere una certa età ed esperienza ed essere sottoposti a un cursus propedeutico.
Più in particolare, per quanto concerne il calcolo pasquale e le dotte e talora sottili polemiche che lo accompagnarono, non va dimenticato il nome di Dionigi il Piccolo, originario della Dacia e contemporaneo di Cassiodoro ? Infatti per altri cinquecento anni dopo la nascita di Cristo, il tempo fu calcolato secondo i vecchi computi e se noi, pur con qualche sfasatura, siamo ormai entrati nel terzo millennio lo dobbiamo a questo straordinario, sapientissimo monaco.
Alle feste pagane si sostituirono gradualmente le cristiane: Il 7 gennaio poi si onorarono i Santi Innocentini. Ma i momenti di incontro religioso e, ad un tempo festoso, in Roma furono numerosi. Anzitutto vanno menzionati i pellegrinaggi moltiplicatisi durante tutto il Medioevo e la cui meta fu vicina e si raggiunse agevolmente quando interessarono templi fra loro contermini.
Tra i più significativi fra questi cortei vi fu quello denominato delle sette chiese, in quanto comprese sette fra le principali basiliche romane: Papa Celestino provvide poi alla prima, sebbene non del tutto fortunata, evangelizzazione della Britannia con la missione dei vescovi Germano di Auxerre e Lupo di Troyes.
Comunque, dopo questa prima acquisizione parziale, il cattolicesimo, tra la fine del V e il VI secolo conobbe una stagione di grandi e duraturi successi. Luxeuil, Corbie, San Gallo, Nonantola, Bobbio — riconosciuta da Onorio i nel — Lorche, Reichenau, Fulda, diventarono splendide istituzioni volte a propagare in intere regioni la religione di Cristo e a stabilire con intere popolazioni un contatto oltre che di carattere religioso, anche sociale e culturale.
A Montecassino infatti fu emanata la Regola presto consolidatasi come la norma destinata a guidare la vita di tutto il monachesimo occidentale. Gregorio seppe anzitutto organizzare in maniera più salda la Chiesa, potenziando le diocesi rette da vescovi ormai dotati di poteri religiosi e civili in qualche misura autonomi.
In seguito procedette a una politica di conversione al cattolicesimo dei popoli barbarici.