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Changes in the ownership of part or all of their corporate structures may affect their denomination and, in some cases, their existence. Some non-official political organizations have been included in this list rather than the next one. Forze Armate Armed forces FF. Ferrovie dello Stato Italian railways FI.

Many of them are often referred to in their abbreviated form, not only in writing, but also in speech. Of these, the following table lists the most frequently mentioned, including some that, although politically extinct or existing under different denominations, are still linguistically alive.

It should be borne in mind that the winds of change of the last few years may well keep blowing into the immediate future. In many cases, the first of the words involved is confederazione, which gives conf-, followed by the word that defines the organization. The resulting abbreviations are all pronounced and used as regular feminine nouns. See also section 9. In a case like nota bene, the argument in favour of an Italian reading is quite strong to the point that this expression has not been included here as Latin ; in others, such as grosso modo, the confusion arises from their widespread use and the existence of similar Italian words.

An English explanation of the Italian use of each expression has been given. A common Italian alternative has also been provided whenever available. The symbol indicates a similar use of the same expression in English, whereas the exclamation mark! Categories shared by adjectives and pronouns e. The symbol hash is called cancelletto lit little gate. However, it should be pointed out that the use of the decimal point, if not practiced, is certainly widely understood in Italy, especially in the scientific world.

For the sake of clarity, the Anglo-American conventions i. It is nonetheless advisable to use the agreement, esp in the singular, e. Carlo fa la IV elementare.

This is common practice with kings, queens, popes, emperors, e. Luigi XIV quattordicesimo , and often centuries; e. Following the French, some of the kings Louis of France are sometimes mentioned in R3 with a cardinal, rather than ordinal, number, e. Every Italian letter is assigned the name of a town or city.

The non-Italian letters j, k, w, x, y have one foreign word each, though in most cases their distinctive names are clear enough. A come Ancona cf. In order to avoid confusion, it is therefore advisable, when translating imperial or American measurements from English, to turn them into or give an indication of their metric equivalents.

The following tables of conversion include both precise and rounded-up values. While the first set might of course be necessary in some circumstances e.

All words ending in -grammo are stressed on the second-last syllable e. Note that the prefix kilo- is often spelt chilo- in Italian, even though the letter k is regularly used in the abbreviations.

For the sake of simplicity, the numbers have been written according to Anglo-American conventions. Officially, 1 euro is worth The use of these specifications may vary according to the season: There are, however, a number of exceptions.

It should be remembered that agreement of adjectives and past participles with nouns is generally based on grammatical gender, not natural sex. Masculine nouns with possible female referents Most are job titles for which a feminine form is not in use. They are nouns relating to: Feminine nouns with possible male referents Notable among the most common are: Ambiguity can be avoided by for example referring to figli maschi as opposed to figlie femmine in the first instance, to fratelli e sorelle in the second.

This applies, in both singular and plural, when the sex of the animal is not an issue or is unknown, especially when there are no obvious differences between the male and the female of the species.

These nouns can be masculine, e. Often there are distinct masculine and feminine forms to indicate the male and the female of the species see section The grammatical gender of the whole expression is that of the original term, e.

In some cases a suffix may allow, in R1, to specify the sex of certain animals, e. Some pairs of nouns are quite unrelated in form, but in most cases the only difference between the masculine and their feminine counterpart is in the ending, with some characteristic patterns of correspondence. Due to the ever increasing presence of women at all levels in society, including fields that have traditionally been the exclusive domain of men, the issue of gender in language has acquired sociopolitical implications.

In linguistic terms, this has led to some confusion in the use of titles related to jobs, professions, positions, ranks, etc. With most professions and A female minister in government may be la ministra or il ministro, but the latter is much more common. In some cases, beside a grammatically feminine form, an analytic expression has been coined, e. Adjectives and participles tend to agree with the natural sex of the person if the person is named, regardless of any other words referring to the person cf.

It is common to use the definite article when referring to prominent women, but not men, by their surname, e. With men this practice is usually reserved for artistic and cultural figures of recognized fame, e. The use of the definite article with given names is common in the North, especially with feminine names, e. Use of the article with masculine names, e. The practice of including both genders in generic cases by giving both ending of adjectives etc.

The title signore is used for all adult men, married or single. The form signorino is considered old-fashioned and is used jocularly to refer to young boys. The titles signora and signorina are used for women of all ages.

There is no Italian equivalent of Ms cf. In fact, many geographic names are usu accompanied by their generic definition, e. Greek letters usu masculine, e.

Among the common feminine nouns in this group beside those listed in the tables above are e-mail usu f , viacard type of motorway credit card, glasnost, bottiglia molotov Molotov cocktail, vamp. Internet is usu m and without article. They are mostly masculine, as shown in detail below. In the great majority of cases this will only show in a change of article, the actual noun being invariable, e. They appear to be masculine, without a form for the female. As usual in these cases, their feminine is formed by adding femmina, e.

They usually reflect the sex of the person they refer to. The change of gender usually shows only in the article, since the second noun is in most cases gender-invariable, e.

There are a few cases where the second noun, and therefore the compound noun, has a distinct feminine form, e. Animals There are not many common animal nouns in this category. Their gender tends to reflect the gender of the head noun, which in the majority of the cases appears to be masculine, e. Among the very few feminine nouns, la volpoca R3, sheld-fowl, whereas grillotalpa mole cricket can be masculine more common in the singular or feminine esp in the more common plural grillotalpe.

In all cases there seem to be no distinct forms for the opposite sex: While practically irrelevant in the case of compounds formed by nouns of the same gender, e.

Compounds like terrapieno embankment lit full of earth are not included, whereas those like terracotta lit cooked earth are. Persons There is a tendency to reflect the gender of the person the noun refers to. This can be done through the article, e. On the other hand, la buonanima the dear departed is feminine even when referring to males. Animals These are not common and usually describe a physical characteristic of the animal in question.

The gender of the compound is usually the same as the noun component, e. The plural noun compounds millepiedi and centopiedi are both masculine. Whenever the final element of the compound makes it possible, the gender will show in the ending, e. However, some words maintain the original gender of the head noun regardless of the sex of the referent, e. Animals The number of animal denominations in this category is too small to allow the identification of patterns of any kind. Compounds that do not have a noun component or that do have a verb component tend to be masculine, e.

In all other compound nouns the gender tends to be the same as that of the noun, if this is the head of the phrase, e. Among the compound nouns that do not follow this pattern: Masculine Feminine boa inv boa constrictor; feather boa buoy caccia inv fighter plane; destroyer hunt camerata male fascist comrade dormitory; female fascist comrade capitale capital econ.

Between the two forms there is, at times, a difference in meaning, as shown in the sample below. In these cases, the form in -i is more likely to be associated with extended or figurative meanings of the word.

However, there are many exceptions and the student should check with a good dictionary if in doubt. When the stress is on the preceding syllable, the plural is -i, e. Those formed with a masculine singular noun or with -mano form a regular plural, and others are invariable: However, if the noun following the collective noun is in the singular, the verb is in the singular, e.

Some words, when used in a collective way, have lost their literal meaning and usually take a plural verb the singular is R2—3 , e. Some singular nouns that refer to groups of people may take a singular or plural verb in English, but always take a singular verb in Italian, e.

Il comitato era contrario alla proposta. Essere Essere is used in the plural if there is a plural noun on either side of it, and it also agrees with a first or second person element if there is one, e. Il problema sono gli studenti. I rappresentanti siete voi. La presidente sei tu. Secondo me, vinceranno o gli italiani o i tedeschi.

Subject pronouns are stressed only; object pronouns have two forms: Stressed pronouns are used for emphasis or contrast, or to remove ambiguity.

Thus subject pronouns, which are always stressed, are usually not used except for these reasons. They are much more common in informal conversation than in writing.

Stressed object pronouns are used like nouns, e. Non ti ho visto alla festa! Non ti ho vista, R2—3 With Lei, when used as a second-person pronoun, participles and adjectives tend to agree with the sex of the person in question cf.

Other forms are still used in more formal registers, especially written: All of these pronouns can be used as stressed object forms, except egli and esso. However, there is some uncertainty about the appropriate use of these forms, and in informal speech it is common to use a demonstrative quello etc. Direct object unstressed The unstressed direct object forms are lo, la, li, le.

Lo also functions as a kind of neutral pronoun in referring to an entire clause and is often not translated in English, e. Our team will win for sure. With the verb essere and similar verbs, lo replaces a complement of the verb noun, adjective — of either gender or number — or phrase , e. She is an interesting person, she always has been. Alcune di queste persone sono nate povere, altre lo sono diventate per qualche disgrazia.

Some of these people were born poor, others became poor through some misfortune. To say no to war we are in the streets today like we were last year.

La is used in many idioms: Indirect object unstressed The indirect object forms are gli and le singular and gli plural as well as ci and ne. Gli is preferred to stressed loro in informal usage and, increasingly, in more formal registers as well. Gli is also used in place of feminine singular le in informal usage, especially in Central Italy, but this is considered ungrammatical.

Ci Ci is traditionally used for reference to animals or things as well as being first person plural. It is often used in R1 in place of gli or le for reference 16 Pronouns to people, as a way of simplifying the range of pronouns in use and also because most dialects use one form for all indirect object reference to persons, animals, and things.

This usage is considered incorrect in Italian, with the exception of certain uses where ci does not correspond to a phrase with a but to some other preposition, e.

On the other hand, gli and le are being used more and more for reference to animals and also things, and it may be that ci is being restricted to its adverbial uses e. It also combines with a number of common verbs to change the meaning, sometimes considerably cf. It corresponds to a phrase introduced by di or da see also section 4.

Chiara left last year and I have not had any news of her. Siamo arrivati a Roma la mattina e ne siamo partiti la sera. We arrived in Rome in the morning and left from there in the evening. Mi assicurava che parlava con il direttore domani, ma ne dubito. He assured me he would talk to the manager tomorrow, but I doubt it lit of it. Ne is also used with a partitive meaning and is often untranslated in English.

In this case it may require agreement with a past participle in a compound tense. Usage varies widely, though in general agreement occurs when there is no object following the verb, e. Hai comprato delle banane? Did you buy any bananas? Hai comprato dei limoni? Did you buy any lemons? Hai comprato delle mele? Did you buy any apples? When the verb is followed by a noun, the participle usually agrees with the noun or, less commonly, with ne, e.

Hai comprato delle arance? Did you buy any oranges? Hai comprato delle pesche? Did you buy any peaches? Similarly, when the verb is reflexive, the participle agrees with the following noun or, less commonly, with ne or, even less commonly, the subject, e.

Elena ha comprato delle pere? Did Elena buy any pears? The following changes occur: Note the varying position of ci: Note the position of impersonal si compared to reflexive si: La si prepara in cinque minuti. Se la prepara in cinque minuti. He prepares it for himself in five minutes. I am told that. Ti parlo per il tuo bene. After and attached to non-finite forms — gerund, infinitive, and participle used alone — and ecco: Note that loro follows all verbs forms and is never attached, e.

Vendesi, Affittasi, Cercasi; Vendonsi or Vendesi appartamenti For sale, For rent, Wanted; Apartments for sale With first and second person imperatives, the pronouns are attached to the verb in the affirmative, e.

In the negative, the pronoun usually follows the verb but in R1—2 may precede it, e. Non preoccuparti or Non ti preoccupare Non parlatene or Non ne parlate Non scoraggiamoci or Non ci scoraggiamo! With third person imperatives, since these are subjunctives, the pronouns always precede the verb, e. Lo sto finendo in questo momento or Sto finendolo in questo momento. In formal registers the pronouns tend to attach to the infinitive, but in informal conversation the choice is free.

Note that if the modal is emphasized, the pronouns attach to the infinitive. With other verbs that take a following infinitive, the pronoun follows the infinitive, but with some verbs it may precede the finite verb in informal registers, e. Non riesco a leggerlo Vado a prendertelo or Te lo vado a prendere Stiamo cercando di orientarci or Ci stiamo cercando di orientare. When the infinitive is a reflexive verb, the position of the pronoun affects the choice of auxiliary: I heard him singing or I heard it being sung.

I heard it being sung. Non voglio sentirlo cantare or Non lo voglio sentir cantare. Therefore with verbs of perception two pronouns may be split, e. Ti ho sentito cantarlo. I heard you singing it. I heard it being sung to you. I heard you singing it or I heard it being sung to you. With certain verbs only one position is possible. With causative fare and lasciare, the pronoun precedes the main verb, e. Li hai fatti cadere?

You made them lose enthusiasm. The most important distinction is between tu and Lei when speaking to one person. Usage is changing rapidly and varies according to personal background and taste, but some general rules can be given. The use of tu in place of Lei is spreading.

Voi, used to one person, is disappearing but still survives especially in the Center and the mainland South. It is used as a mark of respect to persons with whom one is, nevertheless, on familiar or intimate terms, e. Ella is used only on extremely formal, public occasions. Adjectives and participles tend to be in the feminine. Pronoun usage in most cases is reciprocal, i. The only usual exceptions to this involve a clear difference in social status and age.

In the plural, voi is used in almost all situations today, even when the persons being addressed would receive Lei individually. Loro has a somewhat antiquated feel. This usually means that both items are subjects of a verb, expressed or implied, e. If the two nouns or pronouns being compared both come after the verb, che is used though di may also be found in this position.

This usually means that both items are objects of a verb. Compare the following pairs of sentences: I eat more pasta than rice. I like wine more than beer. Note the following two sentences. The library has more books than the bookshop. The library has more books than magazines. Note also the use of di and che in the following pair of sentences in the first sentence, the two items being compared are subjects and in the second they are objects: Matteo li conosce meglio di Chiara. Matteo knows them better than Chiara does.

Matteo li conosce meglio che Chiara. Matteo knows them better than he knows Chiara. When the nouns are preceded by a preposition, che is always used, e.

He is less angry than hurt. Meglio nudi che in pelliccia. Better naked than wearing fur. Meglio tardi che mai. Better late than never. It is more blessed to give than to receive. Smoking is more harmful than drinking. Rather than just a documentary, the film comes across as a tale of fantasy. In R3 non may be used after che, e.

He spoke more out of necessity than because of natural disposition. Oggi ho lavorato meno di ieri. Today I have worked less than yesterday. I love you more than ever. Compared to her brother, she is much more independent. Questo paese ha tanti palazzi quante chiese.

This village has as many palaces as churches. I palazzi sono tanti quante sono le chiese. There are as many palaces as there are churches. Note the use of partitive ne in the following: Ci sono tanti tipi di pizza quanti ce ne sono di formaggio. There are as many types of pizza as there are of cheese. This boy seems to me as intelligent as his brother.

This style is as well-known in Italy as abroad. He lost more shares than he acquired. When two clauses are directly correlated: The more I hear her talk, the more I am convinced she is right. The more the merrier. The more serious the events, the greater the need for original solutions.

When they are used with a noun, the definite article is not used with the adjective in modern Italian. However, when the noun is understood, or when the superlative is an adverb and thus no noun is involved , the article is used, e. She bought the biggest possible ice-cream. A man, the oldest of them all, came towards us.

I will answer as soon as possible. The following construction is R2—3 and does not strictly express the idea of superlative but simply emphasizes the quality of the item in question. In the negative it is decidedly ironic: We witnessed a most strange show. Such adjectives are used as normal adjectives, usually after the noun, e. Ha comprato un gelato grandissimo. She bought a very big ice-cream. Such forms are characteristic of R3.

A number of common adjectives have both regular and irregular forms of the comparative and superlative: This boy is the best-natured in the class. In R1—2 meglio is often used instead of migliore. This usage should not be imitated, e. For economic news, this newspaper is better than that one. They are anteriore, esteriore, inferiore, interiore, posteriore, superiore, ulteriore, e.

Dormiva sul sedile posteriore della macchina. He was asleep in the back seat of the car. Some of these irregular comparatives also have irregular superlative forms, some of which retain a superlative meaning, e. But these and many other words which, strictly speaking, cannot be modified can acquire the superlative ending, especially in informal registers cf. Changes in word order are not random but reflect differences in meaning or emphasis. These may at times be subtle, but are important to the message being communicated.

In general, Italian uses word order for stylistic effects, where English often relies on effects of the voice in writing, these are shown by italics and other conventions.

One important principle is that new or important information is normally placed at the end of the sentence in Italian, and other elements will be arranged accordingly. Il mio computer ha un guasto. My computer has a fault.

There is often nothing in front of the verb in Italian. With transitive verbs and other verbs that take avere, this is because the subject can be omitted if it is clear from the verb ending or the context: Ho visto Luigi ieri. I saw Luigi yesterday. He is better than the last time I saw him. Subjects often come after the verb. This is common in the following cases: Hanno vinto i candidati alternativi.

The alternative candidates have won. It has been a busy night, as those who have been watching us know. Sono aumentate le tasse su tutti i beni di consumo.

Taxes on all consumer goods have gone up. Sono state identificate le persone responsabili. The people responsible have been identified. Si sono verificati incidenti preoccupanti. Worrying incidents have occurred. Mi piacciono tutte le opere di Verdi. Ci manca la tua voce. We miss the sound of your voice. Mi fanno male i piedi. This inversion is very common in speech, since it allows speakers to emphasize whichever elements of the sentence they wish. In R3, the inversion can be done without any other changes to the sentence.

Preoccupazioni puristiche — nel senso ottocentesco del termine — la Crusca non ebbe M. The Crusca Academy did not have puristic concerns in the nineteenth-century sense of the term. Gli spaghetti li ha fatti mia nonna. My grandmother made the spaghetti. This is very much like saying Gli spaghetti sono stati fatti da mia nonna. Consider also these examples: Don Fabrizio quella sensazione la conosceva da sempre Tomasi di Lampedusa. Don Fabrizio had always known that sensation.

A me non mi piace R1—2. In R1 an indirect object is sometimes moved to the left without its preposition. The repeating pronoun makes the meaning clear. This is usually considered ungrammatical, e. To him that has, shall be given. Chiara, non le ho mica detto niente R1. The following construction is R1 and usually considered ungrammatical: Often a pause before the object makes it seem almost an afterthought to remind the listener of the topic at hand which the speaker assumes was common knowledge to start with.

The emphasis is on what precedes this moved object, often the verb. This construction has a feeling It is confined to speech and should be used with care. Do you want a coffee? Lo porto domani, il dolce. Non bisogna farla chiacchierare la gente G.

The Italian construction is very widely used in speech and there are important differences between the English and Italian constructions. Sei tu che devi chiedere scusa. When is it that you are leaving for Canada? To give it particular prominence it may be moved to other positions in the sentence, especially before the verb. Note the shift in emphasis between the two clauses in the following sentence: She speaks Italian well. She speaks Italian very well.

She speaks Italian with great confidence. The adverb anche comes immediately before the item it refers to. Note the effect of the change of position in the following: Eugenio anche scrive poesie in italiano as well as reading them.

Eugenio scrive anche poesie in italiano as well as novels. Eugenio scrive poesie anche in italiano as well as English poems. However, the difference in position always carries a difference in meaning. In many cases this is a subtle nuance of emphasis or style associated with a particular register, but in others the difference is between distinct concepts and would require different words in English.

The basic position for adjectives is after the noun. Here they perform their essential function — to describe something and restrict the meaning of the noun.

When adjectives come before nouns, they acquire a more rhetorical flavour and may express metaphorical meanings. One adjective An adjective after a noun adds information that helps to identify the noun in question, often by contrasting it with other possible or potential nouns. An adjective before a noun gives additional information of a subjective nature about the noun: All adjectives follow the noun if they have some other element depending on them, e.

They express nationality, color, religious or political affiliation etc. Il Manzoni cattolico refers to Alessandro Manzoni after his conversion to Catholicism, as opposed to his earlier, anticlerical period.

To say il cattolico Manzoni is to assume the reader knows that Manzoni was a Catholic and alludes to this fact as part of a particular interpretation. These adjectives are very common and express generic value judgments: In line with what has been said above, when these adjectives come after a noun they express their more usual, literal and simpler meaning.

When they come before a noun, they express metaphorical and more nuanced meanings. This is a factual play. This is a real comedy! If each adjective adds separate information, they are separated by commas and the word e. If the adjectives are descriptive or subjective as mentioned above, they may come before the noun, e. In English they are added to the left. However, if the series gets long, a new adjective, that would have gone at the end of the list, can be added before the noun, e.

R1 Give me another ten or twenty minutes! Avrai il tempo per uscire stasera? No is also used in sentences to sum up a negative alternative: Ma vuoi venire o no? But do you want to come or not? Dimmi se ti piace o no Note the R1—2 alternative: Dimmi se ti piace o meno.

Tell me if you like it or not. If no applies to one particular word, it usually follows that word, e. Andrei volentieri al Luna Park, ma con te no cf. Have you all received the invitation? Sono tutti eligibili, studenti e no. All are eligible, students and non-students.

A common, but less correct, alternative is to use non: All are in agreement, politicians and non-politicians or politicians and others. Not everyone is in agreement. I cannot believe you Non posso non crederti.

I cannot but believe you. With verbs of opinion and intention, moving the non does not significantly change the basic meaning, e. Non vorrei che tu ti preoccupassi. Vorrei che tu non ti preoccupassi. These expressions usually negate an idea which has been referred to, explicitly or implicitly, in the context, and usually lead to a different or opposing idea being put forward, e.

A negative sentence in Italian must always have one negative item before the verb, even if there are one or more negative words after it. Usually the negative words listed above follow the verb, e. There is no reason to believe it. There was no more wine.

Non ho manco capito R1. Non ho punto capito. Non ho parlato con lei: I have not seen him nor do I wish to see him.

Non desidero che partire R3. In R1—2 this would be Voglio solo partire. Neither my wife nor I went there. Mai may precede the verb for emphasis in R2—3, e. Mai che abbia un pensiero gentile cf. He never has a kind thought. It normally comes first in R1 in Sicily: Lui disse che mai aveva pensato che.

Non ho punto or punta voglia di uscire. I have no desire to go out. Manco is most common is the South, mica in the North.

In R1 they may be used without a preceding non: There are many other reinforcing negatives, usually confined to speech, e.

Che cosa hai fatto ieri sera? What did you do last night? Many thanks — It was nothing. Give me the keys! La conosci la sorella di Mario? Certain negative words can be used without non to have a positive meaning this is in fact their historically older meaning , e. Vado a fare la spesa, hai bisogno di niente? Have you ever heard of the Harpies? Se ti ricorderai mai di me, scrivimi. If you ever remember me, write to me. Did you meet my cousin again? Note these R1 uses of niente: Non ho niente voglia di uscire.

Senza counts as a negative word in that it can be followed by one or more negative items, e. He left without saying anything to anyone. Che cosa non hanno fatto gli amici per aiutarlo! I am staying here until you tell me the truth. I will do as I said, unless there are good reasons for changing plans. Il Presidente intervenne per timore che la situazione non peggiorasse R3.

The President intervened for fear that the situation might deteriorate. Here is a list illustrating the most common prefixes. It is difficult to predict which prefix will be used with a particular word — use a dictionary!

Non ha detto parola. She did not say a word. Non ha aperto bocca. He did not open his mouth did not say a word.

Non ha chiuso occhio. She did not sleep a wink. However, it is much more limited in its uses than the English progressive tenses. In many situations where English uses a progressive present or imperfect, it is just as common in Italian to use a simple tense. Thus, although this Italian construction is becoming more widely used in Italy, it should not be overused by the learner, since it is only used to make the action more vivid, actual, or relevant to the situation at hand.

What is Elena doing? She is talking on the telephone. Rosaria is living in Naples. Chiara sta vivendo un brutto momento. Chiara is going through a hard time. He had been waiting for an hour when they finally showed up.

La bandiera viene abbassata in questo momento. The flag is being lowered at this moment. Il tuo italiano sta migliorando giorno per giorno. Your Italian is improving day by day. This usage is colloquial and is most common in parts of the South: In questi tempi sto lavorando molto. Stare a is R1—2 and is most common in the South, while essere dietro a is R1 and is most common in the North.

They are not normally used with verbs of motion. Tommaso ha lavorato a casa per due ore. Tommaso was working at home for two hours. This expresses a continuing action or series of actions during a period of time, especially where the action has a cumulative effect, e. Il governo va raccogliendo consensi per il progetto di legge. The government is gathering support for the bill.

The room was filling with people. In the s the party gradually strengthened its links with the unions. Sometimes andare expresses actual movement and the gerund should be thought of as performing its normal function. Va chiedendo le stesse cose a tutti. He keeps asking everyone the same things. Va chiedendo soldi in tutte le case del paese.

He is going to all the houses in the village asking for money. Often venire preserves some notion of movement, either physically towards the speaker or figuratively towards some end point or person benefiting from the action, e. La barca si veniva avvicinando alla riva. The boat was coming towards the shore implies the speaker is on the shore.

La barca si andava avvicinando alla riva. The boat was approaching the shore moving either towards or away from the speaker. In those months, a situation of general instability was coming into being. English tends to use a verb to express manner and a preposition to express direction.

In Italian, the verb normally expresses direction, while manner is expressed by an adverbial phrase or a gerund. He hobbled back to the kitchen. She swam across the river. Ha attraversato la campagna a piedi. He walked through the countryside. Ha salito le scale di corsa. She ran up the stairs.

Ha sceso le scale in punta di piedi. He tiptoed down the stairs. He crawled to the wall. Common direction verbs in Italian cf. Such movement, towards a destination, is expressed by a 21 Verbs of movement generic direction verb plus an adverbial phrase or a gerund. English often uses one and the same verb in both cases, e. He walked in the city center for an hour. He walked to the city center in an hour.

Did you walk or drive? The following table contains common manner verbs, with some adverbial phrases typically used to express the same movement when a destination is specified. These manner verbs, though intransitive, imply deliberate action by the subject and therefore all take the auxiliary avere cf.

Manner verbs Manner phrases to crawl strisciare strisciando, carponi to cycle andare etc. Hanno passeggiato attraverso i campi. They strolled through the fields i. Ho camminato fino al centro. I went for a walk as far as the city center. Abbiamo guidato lungo la costa. We drove along the coast. All transitive verbs take avere. All reflexive verbs cf section 24 , and verbs in the passive cf. The problem lies with intransitive verbs.

Some take avere, some take essere, and some can take either. In general, avere is used with verbs whose subject is involved in performing an act more or less deliberately, whereas essere is used where the subject of the verb is seen not so much as performing an action as undergoing an event or being affected by the event.

All verbs in this section take essere if the prefix riis added to them. A number of verbs in this list are often used today with avere instead of essere, especially in informal registers. For suonare, see section Essere is often considered to be high register or typical of central Italian usage.

Gli sono piovute addosso disgrazie a non finire. No end of bad luck poured down on him. But lampeggiare and tuonare take avere, e. The traffic light must be broken: Il predicatore ha tuonato contro il malcostume generale R3. The preacher railed against the widespread immorality. The conductor began the concert with a speech.

The concert began at eight on the dot. They take avere when followed by an infinitive even one that would take essere , e. Gli ospiti hanno continuato ad arrivare per tutto il pomeriggio. The guests kept arriving all afternoon. However, cominciare may take essere in R2—3 when used with a verb that takes essere, especially if the subject comes after the verb, e.

Sono cominciati a volare insulti. The affected employees include those unable to work because the government facility where they perform their work is closed, because their work requires a government inspection that cannot be completed, or because the company received a stop-work order.

Children who give me cherubic-lipped kisses before I leave for work and who are the most delicious morsels of joy and peace and prosperity. This was the result of his very detailed work and observations of waystones and tracks, some of which date back to before BC, well before the founding of Rome. What's the exchange rate for euros? Department of Justice and33 U. DistrictJudge Denise Cote said on July 10 Apple had a "central role" ina conspiracy with five major publishers to raise e-book prices.

If the family situation is tense, then they go to friends to talk to them, and among various things, they talk about buying. How do I get an outside line? If you don't keep evolving, you start dying. Whether this means continued education, finding mentors, analyzing the competition or creative brainstorming, continuing to learn is vital.

The key is finding the rightentrepreneurs to build the best consumer-friendly applications. We're just going to blow through that stuff," he added. It comes after disclosures that Guney took at least threetrips to Turkey and made dozens of phone calls to contacts therein the months before the killings, lawyers with access toinvestigation files told Reuters.

Both my sisters live locally with their children and grandchildren so they often join us. Who do you work for? And tech has beenperforming very highly," said Michael Matousek, head trader atU.

Global Investors in San Antonio, Texas. Dozens of the 4, passengers and crew were plucked to safety by helicopters or jumped into the sea and swam to shore. Bodies of many of the dead were retrieved inside the ship, although two bodies were never found. I intend to vote no," Cruz told reporters. If they could have, those movies would have been even more spectacular. Bush, tweeted, "First day I ever took the podium she came to encourage me.

So if you're planning to make a sizable charitable contribution, for example, you might want to hold off for the sake of your tax bill.

Similarly, if you have flexibility over when you receive income, you might want to put as much in the bank before Dec.

Falling back on the safety net of statutory provision is not enough to ensure consistent high standards, strong teaching, adequate examination provision and clarity on what the subject covers. Many of its factories manufacture for export. Add sifted icing sugar and corn flour in three batches.

Continue whipping for 10 mins. Spray Silpat mat with greasing spray. Spread meringue evenly over. Carefully remove from tray and keep in a dehydrator or in an airtight container until serving.

He said on Thursday Paris wasready to increase cooperation with the Libyan authorities toprevent it being a haven for militants. The Liverpool Echo website reaches 1. Well, first of all, it really comes down to this: There was, what, six seasons of that show? Well, we saw that crime pays. Afgri, which produces animal feed and extends financialservices to farmers, has been in business for 90 years.

Some technology may actually add unnecessary steps or maintenance, which most new parents don't have the time for," McCaffrey says, speaking generally and not necessarily about the following apps, websites and gadgets designed to assist new parents.

Could I have a statement, please? Federal Reserve backing off its substantial monetary stimulus and eventually letting U. What qualifications have you got? The players laid a wreath, a single white rose and a Yorkshire scarf at his grave. He said that orderbacklog and cuts in unit costs make him confident that EADSstock will double in the next two to three years. How do you do? The system is created so no single relay, or server, knew the complete path.

A computer algorithm on Tor generates a complex Web address that ends in. FedEx shares had rallied Wednesday on speculation that an activist investor was preparing to build a position in the company. Federal Reserve will start scaling back its massive stimulus program for the economy, is actually pointing to a positive development, Tharman said.

It means that the U. It is as if all the war did was to overturn the result of that last conflict, rather than creating new politics.

But knowing the 'why' is equally important. That additional degree of understanding can help organizations forecast when and how a threat actor might change their behavior -- because if you successfully foil their attacks, they probably will.

What would a year-old Stamkos or Nash or Hall or Tavares go for in a trade right now? The cost of one of those players in the second season of his entry-level contract would be massive. The second baseman flipped the ball to Kozma, as the shortstop moved quickly to complete the inning-ending play.

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The desperate search for replacements led to surprisingly enduring results. The new viola player, Hank Dutt, is still with the quartet today, and cellist Joan Jeanrenaud stayed with the quartet for 20 years. I'm doing a phd in chemistry http: Wearing only an itty bitty black bikini, pregnant Penelope Cruz made a splash at the beach showing off her enormous baby bump while vacationing in Barbados with her son, Leonardo, on March 5, The gorgeous actress, 38, and husband Javier Bardem are expecting their second child together.

I'd like to open a business account http: Craig Harrison replaced Keeton in Friday's loss, and was only able to complete of passes for yards, though he did pick up 38 yards on six carries. This is a mammoth loss for Utah State, as Harrison will likely be a significant downgrade at quarterback, even if he plays well. I'd like to apply for this job http: When you consider that the internet works on the underground in Tokyo, you get an idea of how prolific the use of smartphones has become.

Commuters are playing games, surfing the web, shopping, texting and generally fueling the exponential potential for growth in e-commerce. That is why we own the company Cookpad, an online collective receipt website used by many Japanese to exchange cooking notes and ideas. The stock has outperformed the market by 98pc in the last year. Could I order a new chequebook, please? Yes, I love it! However, there is a risk payrolls could surprise on the upside after a report on Wednesday showed U.

Clarke played his only two Test matches for England ten years ago. Secretary of State John Kerry urged Egyptian authorities to give demonstrators the space to protest in peace - a warning against dispersing pro-Mursi sit-ins.

It was pulled from the market in Europe in and its use has been heavily restricted in the United States. But spacecraft exploring Mars is poised to get close-up views of the icy wanderer first. Thepolitburo, China's top decision-making body, has pledged stableeconomic growth in the second half as it presses ahead withreforms and restructuring to make domestic consumption the maindriver of economic growth.

He denies charges of orchestratingviolence after Kenya's disputed elections. TheNasdaq Composite Index was up Politics and corruption wereoff-limits and censors would also chop anything approaching asex scene, said San Shwe Maung.

Our hearts and thoughts are with his family today. How long have you lived here? Could you please repeat that? Arctic sea ice hit an all-time low in Sept.

Do you need a work permit? But the collapse of the Rana Plaza factory complex outside Dhaka in April raised concerns about safety loopholes. The disaster, one of the world's worst industrial accidents, killed 1, people.

Shares of OGX, which are down 95 percent over thepast year, reversed early losses on Tuesday and were up 14percent at 0. McQueary witnessed a different incident involving "Victim 2" in the team shower in But overall, women in Asia are underrepresented regardless of their home country's wealth or development level. The disparity is even more alarming given that half of Asia's college graduates are female.

The enemy is defeated, demoralized, and on the run! The deals include citations against JPMorgan for poor risk controls and failure to inform regulators about deficiencies in risk management identified by bank management.

Students who would once have languished at home, or in menial jobs, or struggled unsuccessfully in college, are finding a new range of options for support services to help.

Can you put it on the scales, please? Seriously, Aaron Sorkin, does every female character, despite her brilliance or professional acumen, have to have some tragic social flaw that requires her to be rescued in some way by a man? But the theme of season two was spot-on. The official unemployment rate stands at 7.

About 22 million Americans are unemployed or underemployed. After that, however, the rate of contributions decreased dramatically. It was unclear if theycould participate through a nominee holder. The weekend is hosted by the more than members of the Kansas City Juggling Club, which calls itself the largest such club in the country. When they returned to the house, the locks had been changed and many of their belongings were missing. Good crew it's cool: The Company believes that it has made further improvements at its Mohali facility since the last inspection in , and remains committed to addressing all concerns of the US FDA.

Ranbaxy said it was hopeful of an early resolution of these concerns. I didn't realize how big the fandom was when I was cast because I wasn't social-network savvy, so when the news broke that I was cast, it felt like everything blew up I feel lucky to have had the experience of playing a character like Snow White in "Mirror Mirror" where everyone had an opinion, and I was able to learn how to separate myself from public opinion.

Ortiz doubled twice and singled in the eighth. Texas was also very fortunate to beat Iowa State on Oct. Have you got any qualifications? Arya, deputy inspector general of police in the Chambal region of Madhya Pradesh state, told the Press Trust of India. A Dominican-born kid coming out of Washington Heights is hardly the stuff of headlines.

Rockefeller Institute of Government. Housing prices are also on the rise, a boon for property taxes. Thenumber is creeping higher and it could be a cause for concern ifit continues," said Dolapo Oni, oil and gas analyst at Ecobank. He clearly has come to realize that a car is nothing more than a status symbol to show to strangers at red lights. Madrid games are always 7pm onwards, I even kicked off at 11pm one night. By the time I got showered, got home, it was one or two in the morning.

I was knackered, went to bed and basically had only 10 minutes with them before taking them back to the airport in the morning. Which university are you at? She said she feels it's her mission to let others know about the potential risks. Next week, she and her husband's adult daughter are scheduled to appear on "The Doctors" television program to discuss the disease.

It is located at the foot of the Pioneer Mountains, in countryside that is home to plentiful herds of moose, deer and elk. Equally as popular is the bustling port of Dover located along the cliffs. Greenpeace activists released banners off their icebreaker reading "Save the Arctic" and deployed inflatable boats.

Or advised by the President of the United States about changing team names. Or blackmailed by tribal leaders playing the race card. Why did you come to? Vintage California winesflow freely at the myriad parties and receptions leading up toSunday's show.

Takahamawas sentenced to 18 months in prison on Thursday, a sentencethat was suspended for three years. Carey's mother also says her daughter was suffering from it. I am brother, red to the bone. Through the project, Touma hopes the group will return a semblance of normalcy to his war-torn hometown. The airlifts will continue Sunday with helicopter crews expanding their searches east to include Longmont, Fort Collins and Weld County.

What do you do for a living? This has boosted migration into urban areas and shanty towns have burgeoned. Some of the colleges have faced lawsuits that alleged theyinflated job-placement statistics.

The institutions have calledsuch accusations unfounded. Which team do you support? The Rockies got a foot of powder in the last two days. Vail, Aspen, Copper, Breck, coming into prime. Anyone going to Davos to do anything but ski is not really all that bright to begin with.

The really rich and powerful send their minions to the meetings, then go hit the slopes. What do you study? It was also the first vehicle to use the famed A-series engine, in cc form with a top speed of 62mph. That same year the A30 was upgraded into the A35, with cc power and a remote control gearchange. Mr Miliband has frequently referred to his father in speeches and how his values and experiences shaped him. The following night, the mother, Ethan and a dog were found dead in the burned-out ruins of DiMaggio's cabin-style home in the rural community of Boulevard, California, about 45 miles east of San Diego.

Riding will be director, ultra highnet worth, credit solutions. She was previously with BofAMerrill Lynch. Hunter will be director, credit products andservices. There is absolutely no doubt that many of the imaginations it stimulates belong to scientists. To some extent it drives and directs science.

More than aftershocks have been recorded, with one of magnitude 5. The Irish singer turned 45 and took a trip down the aisle on Dec. But unfortunately, the marriage didn't last. O'Connor called it quits from her hubby after 16 days. How many weeks' holiday a year are there? Castro appeared in court Thursday to faces charges that he kidnapped and raped three young women and held them in his home for a decade.

The year-old from Cleveland, Ohio did not enter a plea and stood with his head bowed while the court set a large bond of two million dollars per case, effectively ensuring that he will remain in detention. It is unstandardized, and it is messy," El-Badawi said, but it has been exploited by extremist groups like al-Qaida to encourage suicide attacks, even though some of Islam's most prominent religious leaders have condemned this type of warfare.

TheRoku 3 is the squarest of the boxes and the shiny remote offersmore options. The Roku 1 on the other hand is slightly flatter, butwith a deeper dint and more rounded corners, along with a matteremote, which some people might actually prefer to the shinyplastic of the Roku 2 and 3. Her account also raised concerns that there might be another victim, Caspell said, so police are investigating that possibility, as well.

Obama and the GOP each win three-quarters of their partisans on this question, with Obama prevailing because self-identified Democrats outnumber Republicans by 11 points.

While the head office will be in Toronto, a council ofministers from participating provinces will oversee the body. And Ottawa will compensate provincial governments for anyrevenue loss resulting from the loss of their own regulators. And with it, the Republicans have lost yet another opportunity to reposition the party as welcoming to those who are born elsewhere but, for reasons of their own, want to come to the United States to live.

Could you ask her to call me? Not only did Ed Miliband wish David Cameron a happy birthday, but both men fell over themselves to congratulate Professor Peter Higgs of boson fame for winning a Nobel Prize. Dez Bryant can tell the media he has a paper cut and somebody will respond!

He simply says he can do whatever CJ can do! Nothing wrong with alittle confidence in yourself! Shut ur damn mouth Nate and let CJ speak! Your like that annoying little kid behind the big kid that always bickers! Dez is way better than ur srry ass! Compare him to you! The university, working with the Women Students Assembly and other groups, updated our sexual assault reporting guidelines in More recently, and prior to the filing of this complaint, USC began an ongoing review of policies and procedures in light of updated federal guidelines.

Francis Prep officials had received numerous complaints that Stenger, who also taught social studies, had sexually and physically abused boys by but was permitted to continue to work closely with students. Yes, he can still dominate and throw hard. Recording the list, prioritization and structure will help get you the results expected. Patrols go out every night to try and stop the cull by blowing whistles or shining torches from footpaths, but despite a few arrests it appears the cull is continuing as planned.

Now, the largely figurehead offices still play a role in the land-use review process, and still dole out millions in capital funds.

The trophy he received should surely be the only reward necessary. Do you know what extension he's on? And at the Masters in April, a much-respected referee called in to make the Augusta officials aware of another illegal drop Woods had taken. Management made no comment on the talks yesterday. What line of work are you in? The court, authorized under the ForeignIntelligence Surveillance Act of , has been criticized foressentially rubber stamping the U.

Understandably, Clarence House will not comment on such a private and delicate matter. So we're going to investin improving the quality. Attorney General Eric Holder asking for greater freedom topublicly discuss how it turns over user information to thegovernment. The letter was a response to a Guardian report thatsaid Microsoft had given authorities the ability to circumventencryption of Outlook emails and to capture Skype online chats.

Microsoft has contested the report, saying it has "significantinaccuracies. How would you like the money?

Whereabouts in are you from? Can I take your number? The city has offered the A's land for a baseball park, while also pressing the league to have owners of the other teams vote to allow the A's to move. Although the bankdoes not disclose how many of its staff work in home loansspecifically, Wells Fargo had over 11, mortgage loan officerson its payroll at the end of March.

Five months on, I learn five couples have been on multiple dates. He will make the hour-and-a-half flight to her home to meet her parents.

As all the attendees gather in the lobby to check out, Ruby emerges in a flouncy summer dress. Clutching her sunhat, she waves to the other girls. The property magnate sweeps up her luggage and escorts her to the waiting car. Key to the effort is that the countries with the most child deaths tackle the problem head on.

All 75, tickets for Sunday had been sold out, a festival spokeswoman said. We played a good game. But you can't make a mistake like that. We played well last game, too, and got nothing at the end of the day.

We got one point, [so] it was something. But tonight, getting nothing, it's a huge four-point swing. Its four major pro franchiseshave 23 championships among them. Only four North Americancities have more. All its teams have made playoffs runs in thepast five years. Vladimir Putin's aide Yuri Ushakov told reporters on Friday he cannot comment on the intelligence because the U.

Could you tell me the dialing code for? He pumped his fist, hugged his grizzled caddie Fluff Cowan and settled into history. A casual fan for years, I'd perused his "Wall and Piece" book and taken the odd snap whenever I stumbled across his work.

Can I call you back? One theory has it that the pale flowers may be the result of contrasting temperatures between the tepid heat of the short British summer and the cool winter quarters e. It has not much to recommend it as a conservatory or winter house plant, so is often banished and given a renovation haircut in spring.

Still, Cameronbowed to opposition demands to await a judgment by on-siteUnited Nations inspectors. A graduate of Michigan State University, he lived for nearly a decade in Georgia working for the Atlanta Journal-Constitution where he spent time covering the late Atlanta Thrashers. He was the only Thrashers beat writer to get the team to the playoffs.

What company are you calling from? After a few more tries the questions did not show up atall. Many medical devices use wireless technology, and authorisation that requires only a user name and password that can be remotely extracted from them. Jack said these were designed to be easy to crack by a doctor needing to give treatment in an emergency.

Further, companies expect their core machinery orders, a leading indicator of capital spending, to fall in the current quarter. Treasuries andother high-grade investment bonds, and it will allow privatesector institutions to manage only a few percent of thereserves, the Nikkei business daily reported on Sunday. He disagrees with critics, including some managers, who say Puig hasn't been in the big leagues long enough to merit an All-Star berth.

National Security Agency targeted most Latin American countries with spying programs that monitored Internet traffic, especially in Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil and Mexico.

They also say that recognizing Israel as the Jewish state would harm the interests of Israel's Arab minority as well as Palestinian refugees who claim lost properties in what is now Israel.

I don't think there is another place that could beat this for my learning style. Do you like it here? The story of Linear B has long been a British masculine triumphal narrative, bracketed by two remarkable Englishmen: Evans and Michael Ventris, the dashing young amateur who, against all odds, deciphered the script in This is normal processand not a reciprocal one," the Indian spokesman said via atelephone text message ahead, of the release.

Cristiano Ronaldo's sexy girlfriend played up her curves in a stand-out orange and gold bikini while taking a dip in the ocean on July 21, But she's not the only beauty making waves recently Baker is the Kansas City-based prosecutor for Jackson County, which is about 90 miles south of Maryville.

He previously led Goldman's financial institution's equity capital markets group. Morocco found themselves in the same group as Didier Drogba and the Ivory Coast, while Tunisia miss out after a shock home defeat to the Cape Verde Islands on Saturday.

The Republican was recently released after more than five years in prison and seven months on home confinement. These were called off in January after two Indian soldiers were killed in a clash on the border. One of the bodies was mutilated, according to Indian officials. CEO Sunil Paul said participating helped "in material ways, like spreading the word about hiring. A law requires NOAA to develop a strategy to share data collected in ocean research and promote the development of new technology.

A new euroskeptic party, the Alternative for Germany AfD , was hovering at 4. Mr Page singled out the "Loon" project which will use balloons to provide broadband access to Sub Saharan Africa.

Who would I report to? Civil rights groups say the policy leads to racial profiling because out of the , stops conducted in , 87 percent of them were of blacks or Latinos. Nine out of 10 people stopped were found not to be guilty of any crime. But Trump, it seems, was running something called Trump University.

No team orders at Ferrari it would seem, and we must remember that the Brazilian is racing for his F1 future after being replaced by Raikkonen for The one thing they all have in common is how meticulous and focused they are as they go about their daily duties. Wollman keeps case folders on a round table in his second-floor office. The latest, a thin purple folder, contains evidence from the ongoing investigation. He did not know who Adrian Peterson was before the investigation commenced.

The singer shared a precious snap of her 8-week-old daughter Maxwell Drew in a new Twitter photo on June 26, The work dried up. After a thin year, the phone rang again.

Again, Rogers was unsure. After all, this was the world of the old establishment in excelsis, the old school tie, spotted dick and custard, and the very highest finance.

The results revealed thecompany's deep challenges: He also pays in cash for the properties as much as possible to avoid over-leveraging himself. The key economic story was that it was going to be stronger were it not for the government. The only "vacuous" argument is yours.

Second, the argument NEVER "assumes as scientific fact that gays are genetically determined to be gay" -- but it has been proven and confirmed that sexual orientation is not a choice. While there is no "gay gene," there is no "straight gene," either. It has a specific policy role to support domestic companies in the export industry and to help them secure projects and contracts abroad.

State support has been demonstrated in the past in the form of common equity and government funding assistance. McConnell has accused Democrats of getting ready for "a power grab" by moving to "change the rules by breaking the rules.

But volunteers aren't allowed to keep the main gates open, since all government agencies are barred from allowing employees to volunteer in the event of a shutdown. Shipments of four Fs have already been halted temporarily, and eight more jets were due to be delivered in December. A major health initiative has led to a dramatic increase in coverage in poorer nations - especially across Africa - but coverage in South-east Asia remains extremely poor.

What do you want to do when you've finished? Many styles in the "lightweight stability" category are particularly adaptable across different terrains.

A good shoe should have grips attached to the soles to maintain balance and good traction even if the ground is wet. What's the last date I can post this to to arrive in time for Christmas? That's because pigs are commonly fed antibiotics to fatten them up, Casey says. Ludlow explained this is to protect against bouncers using the technology to stalk patrons or store owners using the information for junk mailings.

The groups say the arrests are unjust. The Huangs' relatives say they've been falsely accused. The line also experienced the most suicide attempts with 39 fatal and non-fatal accidents since Now prosecutors are using that information to try to make a suicide look like a homicide, he said.

By , having spent five years in guerrilla attacks, Giap moved into stage two. By , as France wearied of war, he had moved into stage three and prepared for Dien Bien Phu. Brazilians will have to wait a long time before all these problems can be solved and we can get our prices right.

Gandhi in his epic, 'Gandhi. They have been climbing for 12 hours now and Greenpeace optimistically hope they are an hour from the top. Before Alphaville, Cardiff spent a little more than two years as a reporter at Dow Jones Financial News covering investment banking, asset management, and private equity.

Along the way he has written freelance pieces on a variety of other topics from behavioural psychology to Muay Thai, the latter also being a personal interest that involves frequently getting kicked in the shins and torso, and head. Muslims and Christians, all religious leaders call on people to do their patriotic duty without violence.

Thank you and congratulations on achieving the improbable of reacceleration which many people doubted. My question was on the ELA side if you look at the the shape of relatively to renewals, are we also setup for another back unloaded year such as so that we went through and also if you could comment about new ELAs, it looks like the numbers keep getting bigger, bigger, commenting on new ELAs and how you expect that to pan out next year would be great.

Of course, they could always just make pain patients suffer and crack down on the illegal use at the same time!

Doctors told my parents I was lucky to be alive. Much of the sparsely-inhabited interior is accessible only by river. International lawyers seeking to discover "Palestine-friendly" sources of legal confirmation could conveniently cherry-pick pertinent provisions of the Convention on the Rights and Duties of States , the treaty on statehood.

Moreover, they could apply the very same strategy of selective interpretation to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Calcium in bones secretes out through urine. As the bones weaken, astronauts are more susceptible to breaking them if they slip and fall, just like people with osteoporosis.

Muscles also lose mass. This is a country of evolutionary change, successfully pluralist for millennia because of a national genius for good manners and peaceful coexistence. We are an island people constantly modifying our composition and our relationship with the rest of the world. He started the season at High-A St.

Lucie and was promoted to Double-A Binghamton after 12 starts and is a combined with a 2. Yes, he had plenty of stories about his days there, where he was a sports reporter on the student newspaper. He made Russell a regular on the show. Mazer made listeners feel Russell was part of the family. First of all, you get the activated SIM. Secondly, we give Verizon a whole bunch of returned tablets that they can only be sold as refurbished!

Some policymakers have suggested that the shift in the Beveridge curve may reflect a mismatch between the skills unemployed workers have and what employers are looking for see Kocherlakota For example, an unemployed construction worker may have difficulty getting a job in information technology or health care, even though there may be openings in those sectors.

Workers need time to learn new skills. Thus, an increase in skill mismatch could cause the unemployment rate to be persistently higher than before, creating a new normal.

But recent research suggests that skill mismatch is probably not a main driving force behind a higher unemployment rate for a given level of vacancies and the resulting outward shift in the Beveridge curve see Valletta and Kuang , Barlevy , and Daly et al. This site is crazy: It is the biggest physical electricity trader of any bank in North America, according to U. The parent company also holds stakes in at least seven U. He was probably right.

I thought the Toronto speech, the first one, was much better. However, it was Lucien who built the organization, caring about it as if it were his son or daughter. In a way it was. Eating a large chocolate bar every day on top of your usual daily intake could lead to some weight gain. However, as part of a healthy and balanced diet including 30 minutes of exercise five times a week, chocolate as a treat will not make you fat. He is believed to be in the UK. However, the retailer pointed out that this October date is subject to change.

It's also a quarter of a pound lighter than the C But the big selling point is its battery life, which Acer says ought to last up to 8. Are you a student? He roped in twoemployees for a game of ping-pong and positioned another groupright by the bar.

The rebels made their surprise attack on Monday, tryingto march through the city to plant a flag of independence.

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Global Investors in San Antonio, Texas. Un piatto tutto mantovano è il luccio in salsa, insieme alla mostarda di Viadana, servita con il Parmigiano o il Grana padano. We are suckers to the biggest drug lords. How do you know each other? Many dialects are spoken in Italy. What would a year-old Stamkos or Nash or Hall or Tavares go for in a trade right now?

Is it convenient to talk at the moment? German Chancellor Angela Merkel's chief of staff was called before parliament to answer questions about what the government knew about US spying as the opposition Social Democrats stepped up pressure on her. Breeders worldwide could be affected because semen could be transported to other countries, though some international laws might not allow the use of clones, said Billy Smith, a spokesman for the American Paint Horse Association.

More than 70 percent of people will be married at some point in their lives, according to the Pew Research Center. The fact that only half of Americans remain married now shows the impact of divorce, which destroys wealth nearly as much as stable marriages tend to create it.

CNN also left a message with a publicist known to represent her in From legendary boxers and iconic tennis players to golfing greats and fabled Olympians, the Daily News has the photos you want of the once-in-a-lifetime sports moments. Find yours today and relive history. Could I have an application form? What sort of music do you listen to? By repeatedly commanding the biobots to follow walls, and coupling that data with that collected by their random movements and combined with information collected by multiple units, the system can effectively map an area.

Also freed was a 6-year-old girl who, according to DNA evidence, was fathered by Castro with Berry during her captivity. When she returned about 5 a. Could I borrow your phone, please? Have you got a telephone directory? District Court in New York, Belafonte asks the court to declare him the owner of three documents associated with King and his widow, Coretta Scott King, and to bar King's estate and youngest daughter, Bernice King, permanently from trying to claim ownership of the items.

Yet he said he agreed with critics who point out the government has failed on earlier promises to get its financial house in order. Trading increases as investors replaceor repurchase existing contracts.

Could I ask who's calling? This is part of ensuring we have the best machinery to beat the cheats. When do you want me to start? He enjoyed fishing and gardening. Nora "loved a little flavor of the casinos," according to an obituary, and was a teacher as well as a cheerleading coach.

Instagram, which has about millionactive users, will have the same security measures that Facebookuses, said spokesman Michael Kirkland. A high number of cases have already been confirmed in England this year. Destinations popular with holiday-makers, France, Italy, Spain and Ireland are among the top seven countries reporting high numbers of measles cases currently. Do you have any exams coming up? It will give them an understanding of life and hopefully they'll look after us in future.

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In Muslim tradition, the dead are buried quickly, in rows aligned so that their heads point toward Mecca. A long straight trough had been dug for the new arrivals. Do just that with a screening of Quadrophenia on Brighton Beach on August Even better that the event is free. Whereabouts are you from?

Now, after 13 years the festival is no more. Where's the nearest cash machine? The White House has said Obama will announce his decision in the fall. Nutricia had locked down all five batches of infant formula it believed contained the tainted product, the ministry said. But it advised that parents should buy different Nutricia products or alternative brands until it verified the location of all tainted Nutricia products.

So you have to look at the style of play. That had a lot to do with the decision to fire Tortorella , too. Do you know the address? Price, though, has yielded two runs in each of his last two outings. Attorney's Office in Manhattan announced two other indictments against Kalinin, one charging he hacked servers used by Nasdaq from November through October It said he installed malicious software that enabled him and others to execute commands to delete, change or steal data.

That said, Alvarez might have nicked it on work-rate again But we ask you to remember that we are not public officials and we did not invite this type of attention into our lives," they said. What do you do? WM, a unit of State Street, calculates the benchmarkusing the median of the trades and the orders. The driver, Alexian Lien, needed stiches after being beaten by the bikers. The explosion trapped dozens of people in the upper floors of the building while smoke filled the sky in one of the country's largest cities.

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Obviously, steadily clear Chem Weapons. With Scorpio rising and a moon in Capricorn, he'll have the capacity for intense discipline, an urge for control and the ability to act with an eye toward the future. Scorpio is Prince Charles' sun sign, adding further family continuity to the baby's chart. Will I be paid weekly or monthly?

Could you ask him to call me? That business will compete asRevolution Mobile under new ownership. Like many a young man in love, Ashoka had roughly chiselled a memorial graffito high on a wall: It is as if Allen has brought Ashoka and his world back to life.

In Sanchi he shows us a carving of the emperor as an elderly man, fainting into the arms of female attendants after seeing the dead sacred fig tree in Bodhgaya, poisoned by his young second wife in a fit of pique.

Detention without charge can last for up to 15 days. I don't think Mattingly or Matheny have anything for which to apologize. It is the only place, apart from South Korea and Japan,where the Europeans play no significant role," said Kaiser.

They are both comfortable with their modest growth rates compared to their norms of the past decade , and insulated from the kind of social unrest we are seeing in Egypt, Turkey or Brazil. But both countries have a deeper intractable challenge that will, in the longer-term, get worse.

In China, politicians capture the private sector and the wealth that comes with it. To make a Kung Fu film in my way. I see today there's a lot of misconceptions or misinterpretations about some of these Chinese things, and one of them is the Chinese martial arts. The crew contacted Las Vegas police, who met them upon landing and transferred the boy to child protection services, Hogan said. Douglas Bauer, a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, reviewed the research on calcium supplements, concluding that it's safer to skip them in favor of calcium-rich foods.

Susana Martinez nor Democratic Attorney General Gary King, who plans to run for her seat next year, indicated they planned to do anything to try to halt the practice as cases testing the legality of same-sex marriage work their way through the state Supreme Court.

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In order to find out, the scientists studied the calls of orangutans living in dense, tropical forests. There, orangutans are often out of sight of the apes from the rest of their group.

WikiLeaks has helped the former intelligence analyst leak these materials. Snowden was originally bound for Ecuador, though that country has distanced itself from initial reports that it would grant him asylum, pointing instead to Russia to make the next decision on his fate. How much does the job pay? Just a few hours before his death, the star tweeted about watching TV movie "Sharknado," which was a huge hit on the Syfy network.

It is a robust diversity standard that provides businesses with a range of indicators to help them drive sustainable change and demonstrate exceptional practice.

Did you go to university? We need someone with qualifications http: Solidarnosc, trade union in the communist dictatorship we had a slogan: No bread without solidarity, no bread without freedom! And now we can add: No solidarity without responsibility! This is a very important slogan for the European Union for the future as well! How much is a First Class stamp? He dined on chocolate, figs, dates and cereal that had been compressed into cubes. He told mission control it tasted fine but left crumbs floating throughout his space capsule.

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Authorities have yet to comment on what evidence they have linking Taylor to the teens disappearance. Alexis Murphy is described as an African American female, 5-foot-7, weighing pounds.

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The high-technology-dominated Nasdaq index is now at its highest level in 13 years. Police are not treating his death as suspicious. The movie tells the story of Nick Dunne, played by Ben Affleck, who deals with the disappearance of his wife Amy Dunne, played by Rosamund Pike, and his possible role in her vanishing. I'm doing a masters in law http: As well as taking instructions that would otherwise have translated into business for these estate agents, such firms may also be disrupting local property markets as buyers get a "distorted" idea of what going rates are, Mr Cork argued.

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Their day is coming. Sooner than they expect! I hope to live and see the end of Israel! Drinking from a wide glass is just one way that you might be getting more than you thought. Do you know each other? Police initially concluded there were no grounds to charge anyone after a yearlong investigation.

Where do you live? But to their dismay, they aren't transported back to fairytale land. To make matters worse, Rumplestiltskin - aka Mr. Gold - in an effort to gain the upper hand in his power struggle with Regina, has introduced magic into the town. In fairytales magic has its place, but in our world it can have unfathomable consequences.

The affected employees include those unable to work because the government facility where they perform their work is closed, because their work requires a government inspection that cannot be completed, or because the company received a stop-work order.

Children who give me cherubic-lipped kisses before I leave for work and who are the most delicious morsels of joy and peace and prosperity. This was the result of his very detailed work and observations of waystones and tracks, some of which date back to before BC, well before the founding of Rome.

What's the exchange rate for euros? Department of Justice and33 U. DistrictJudge Denise Cote said on July 10 Apple had a "central role" ina conspiracy with five major publishers to raise e-book prices. If the family situation is tense, then they go to friends to talk to them, and among various things, they talk about buying.

How do I get an outside line? If you don't keep evolving, you start dying. Whether this means continued education, finding mentors, analyzing the competition or creative brainstorming, continuing to learn is vital. The key is finding the rightentrepreneurs to build the best consumer-friendly applications. We're just going to blow through that stuff," he added. It comes after disclosures that Guney took at least threetrips to Turkey and made dozens of phone calls to contacts therein the months before the killings, lawyers with access toinvestigation files told Reuters.

Both my sisters live locally with their children and grandchildren so they often join us. Who do you work for? And tech has beenperforming very highly," said Michael Matousek, head trader atU. Global Investors in San Antonio, Texas. Dozens of the 4, passengers and crew were plucked to safety by helicopters or jumped into the sea and swam to shore. Bodies of many of the dead were retrieved inside the ship, although two bodies were never found.

I intend to vote no," Cruz told reporters. If they could have, those movies would have been even more spectacular. Bush, tweeted, "First day I ever took the podium she came to encourage me. So if you're planning to make a sizable charitable contribution, for example, you might want to hold off for the sake of your tax bill. Similarly, if you have flexibility over when you receive income, you might want to put as much in the bank before Dec.

Falling back on the safety net of statutory provision is not enough to ensure consistent high standards, strong teaching, adequate examination provision and clarity on what the subject covers. Many of its factories manufacture for export. Add sifted icing sugar and corn flour in three batches. Continue whipping for 10 mins. Spray Silpat mat with greasing spray.

Spread meringue evenly over. Carefully remove from tray and keep in a dehydrator or in an airtight container until serving. He said on Thursday Paris wasready to increase cooperation with the Libyan authorities toprevent it being a haven for militants. The Liverpool Echo website reaches 1. Well, first of all, it really comes down to this: There was, what, six seasons of that show? Well, we saw that crime pays. Afgri, which produces animal feed and extends financialservices to farmers, has been in business for 90 years.

Some technology may actually add unnecessary steps or maintenance, which most new parents don't have the time for," McCaffrey says, speaking generally and not necessarily about the following apps, websites and gadgets designed to assist new parents. Could I have a statement, please? Federal Reserve backing off its substantial monetary stimulus and eventually letting U. What qualifications have you got? The players laid a wreath, a single white rose and a Yorkshire scarf at his grave.

He said that orderbacklog and cuts in unit costs make him confident that EADSstock will double in the next two to three years. How do you do? The system is created so no single relay, or server, knew the complete path. A computer algorithm on Tor generates a complex Web address that ends in.

FedEx shares had rallied Wednesday on speculation that an activist investor was preparing to build a position in the company. Federal Reserve will start scaling back its massive stimulus program for the economy, is actually pointing to a positive development, Tharman said. It means that the U. It is as if all the war did was to overturn the result of that last conflict, rather than creating new politics.

But knowing the 'why' is equally important. That additional degree of understanding can help organizations forecast when and how a threat actor might change their behavior -- because if you successfully foil their attacks, they probably will. What would a year-old Stamkos or Nash or Hall or Tavares go for in a trade right now? The cost of one of those players in the second season of his entry-level contract would be massive.

The second baseman flipped the ball to Kozma, as the shortstop moved quickly to complete the inning-ending play. He has been treated for the condition in a Dublin hospital. There were 11 deaths on the nearby Cebu islands and another on Siguijor island.

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That is why we own the company Cookpad, an online collective receipt website used by many Japanese to exchange cooking notes and ideas. The stock has outperformed the market by 98pc in the last year.

Could I order a new chequebook, please? Yes, I love it! However, there is a risk payrolls could surprise on the upside after a report on Wednesday showed U.

Clarke played his only two Test matches for England ten years ago. Secretary of State John Kerry urged Egyptian authorities to give demonstrators the space to protest in peace - a warning against dispersing pro-Mursi sit-ins. It was pulled from the market in Europe in and its use has been heavily restricted in the United States. But spacecraft exploring Mars is poised to get close-up views of the icy wanderer first. Thepolitburo, China's top decision-making body, has pledged stableeconomic growth in the second half as it presses ahead withreforms and restructuring to make domestic consumption the maindriver of economic growth.

He denies charges of orchestratingviolence after Kenya's disputed elections. TheNasdaq Composite Index was up Politics and corruption wereoff-limits and censors would also chop anything approaching asex scene, said San Shwe Maung. Our hearts and thoughts are with his family today. How long have you lived here? Could you please repeat that? Arctic sea ice hit an all-time low in Sept. Do you need a work permit? But the collapse of the Rana Plaza factory complex outside Dhaka in April raised concerns about safety loopholes.

The disaster, one of the world's worst industrial accidents, killed 1, people. Shares of OGX, which are down 95 percent over thepast year, reversed early losses on Tuesday and were up 14percent at 0. McQueary witnessed a different incident involving "Victim 2" in the team shower in But overall, women in Asia are underrepresented regardless of their home country's wealth or development level.

The disparity is even more alarming given that half of Asia's college graduates are female. The enemy is defeated, demoralized, and on the run! The deals include citations against JPMorgan for poor risk controls and failure to inform regulators about deficiencies in risk management identified by bank management. Students who would once have languished at home, or in menial jobs, or struggled unsuccessfully in college, are finding a new range of options for support services to help.

Can you put it on the scales, please? Seriously, Aaron Sorkin, does every female character, despite her brilliance or professional acumen, have to have some tragic social flaw that requires her to be rescued in some way by a man?

But the theme of season two was spot-on. The official unemployment rate stands at 7. About 22 million Americans are unemployed or underemployed.

After that, however, the rate of contributions decreased dramatically. It was unclear if theycould participate through a nominee holder. The weekend is hosted by the more than members of the Kansas City Juggling Club, which calls itself the largest such club in the country. When they returned to the house, the locks had been changed and many of their belongings were missing. Good crew it's cool: The Company believes that it has made further improvements at its Mohali facility since the last inspection in , and remains committed to addressing all concerns of the US FDA.

Ranbaxy said it was hopeful of an early resolution of these concerns. I didn't realize how big the fandom was when I was cast because I wasn't social-network savvy, so when the news broke that I was cast, it felt like everything blew up I feel lucky to have had the experience of playing a character like Snow White in "Mirror Mirror" where everyone had an opinion, and I was able to learn how to separate myself from public opinion. Ortiz doubled twice and singled in the eighth.

Texas was also very fortunate to beat Iowa State on Oct. Have you got any qualifications? Arya, deputy inspector general of police in the Chambal region of Madhya Pradesh state, told the Press Trust of India. A Dominican-born kid coming out of Washington Heights is hardly the stuff of headlines. Rockefeller Institute of Government. Housing prices are also on the rise, a boon for property taxes. Thenumber is creeping higher and it could be a cause for concern ifit continues," said Dolapo Oni, oil and gas analyst at Ecobank.

He clearly has come to realize that a car is nothing more than a status symbol to show to strangers at red lights. Madrid games are always 7pm onwards, I even kicked off at 11pm one night. By the time I got showered, got home, it was one or two in the morning. I was knackered, went to bed and basically had only 10 minutes with them before taking them back to the airport in the morning.

Which university are you at? She said she feels it's her mission to let others know about the potential risks. Next week, she and her husband's adult daughter are scheduled to appear on "The Doctors" television program to discuss the disease.

It is located at the foot of the Pioneer Mountains, in countryside that is home to plentiful herds of moose, deer and elk. Equally as popular is the bustling port of Dover located along the cliffs. Greenpeace activists released banners off their icebreaker reading "Save the Arctic" and deployed inflatable boats.

Or advised by the President of the United States about changing team names. Or blackmailed by tribal leaders playing the race card. Why did you come to? Vintage California winesflow freely at the myriad parties and receptions leading up toSunday's show.

Takahamawas sentenced to 18 months in prison on Thursday, a sentencethat was suspended for three years. Carey's mother also says her daughter was suffering from it. I am brother, red to the bone. Through the project, Touma hopes the group will return a semblance of normalcy to his war-torn hometown.

The airlifts will continue Sunday with helicopter crews expanding their searches east to include Longmont, Fort Collins and Weld County. What do you do for a living? This has boosted migration into urban areas and shanty towns have burgeoned. Some of the colleges have faced lawsuits that alleged theyinflated job-placement statistics. The institutions have calledsuch accusations unfounded.

Which team do you support? The Rockies got a foot of powder in the last two days. Did you buy any peaches? Similarly, when the verb is reflexive, the participle agrees with the following noun or, less commonly, with ne or, even less commonly, the subject, e. Elena ha comprato delle pere? Did Elena buy any pears? The following changes occur: Note the varying position of ci: Note the position of impersonal si compared to reflexive si: La si prepara in cinque minuti.

Se la prepara in cinque minuti. He prepares it for himself in five minutes. I am told that. Ti parlo per il tuo bene. After and attached to non-finite forms — gerund, infinitive, and participle used alone — and ecco: Note that loro follows all verbs forms and is never attached, e.

Vendesi, Affittasi, Cercasi; Vendonsi or Vendesi appartamenti For sale, For rent, Wanted; Apartments for sale With first and second person imperatives, the pronouns are attached to the verb in the affirmative, e. In the negative, the pronoun usually follows the verb but in R1—2 may precede it, e. Non preoccuparti or Non ti preoccupare Non parlatene or Non ne parlate Non scoraggiamoci or Non ci scoraggiamo!

With third person imperatives, since these are subjunctives, the pronouns always precede the verb, e. Lo sto finendo in questo momento or Sto finendolo in questo momento. In formal registers the pronouns tend to attach to the infinitive, but in informal conversation the choice is free. Note that if the modal is emphasized, the pronouns attach to the infinitive. With other verbs that take a following infinitive, the pronoun follows the infinitive, but with some verbs it may precede the finite verb in informal registers, e.

Non riesco a leggerlo Vado a prendertelo or Te lo vado a prendere Stiamo cercando di orientarci or Ci stiamo cercando di orientare. When the infinitive is a reflexive verb, the position of the pronoun affects the choice of auxiliary: I heard him singing or I heard it being sung.

I heard it being sung. Non voglio sentirlo cantare or Non lo voglio sentir cantare. Therefore with verbs of perception two pronouns may be split, e. Ti ho sentito cantarlo. I heard you singing it. I heard it being sung to you. I heard you singing it or I heard it being sung to you. With certain verbs only one position is possible. With causative fare and lasciare, the pronoun precedes the main verb, e. Li hai fatti cadere? You made them lose enthusiasm. The most important distinction is between tu and Lei when speaking to one person.

Usage is changing rapidly and varies according to personal background and taste, but some general rules can be given. The use of tu in place of Lei is spreading. Voi, used to one person, is disappearing but still survives especially in the Center and the mainland South. It is used as a mark of respect to persons with whom one is, nevertheless, on familiar or intimate terms, e. Ella is used only on extremely formal, public occasions.

Adjectives and participles tend to be in the feminine. Pronoun usage in most cases is reciprocal, i. The only usual exceptions to this involve a clear difference in social status and age. In the plural, voi is used in almost all situations today, even when the persons being addressed would receive Lei individually.

Loro has a somewhat antiquated feel. This usually means that both items are subjects of a verb, expressed or implied, e. If the two nouns or pronouns being compared both come after the verb, che is used though di may also be found in this position.

This usually means that both items are objects of a verb. Compare the following pairs of sentences: I eat more pasta than rice. I like wine more than beer. Note the following two sentences. The library has more books than the bookshop.

The library has more books than magazines. Note also the use of di and che in the following pair of sentences in the first sentence, the two items being compared are subjects and in the second they are objects: Matteo li conosce meglio di Chiara. Matteo knows them better than Chiara does.

Matteo li conosce meglio che Chiara. Matteo knows them better than he knows Chiara. When the nouns are preceded by a preposition, che is always used, e. He is less angry than hurt. Meglio nudi che in pelliccia. Better naked than wearing fur. Meglio tardi che mai. Better late than never. It is more blessed to give than to receive.

Smoking is more harmful than drinking. Rather than just a documentary, the film comes across as a tale of fantasy. In R3 non may be used after che, e. He spoke more out of necessity than because of natural disposition. Oggi ho lavorato meno di ieri. Today I have worked less than yesterday.

I love you more than ever. Compared to her brother, she is much more independent. Questo paese ha tanti palazzi quante chiese. This village has as many palaces as churches. I palazzi sono tanti quante sono le chiese. There are as many palaces as there are churches. Note the use of partitive ne in the following: Ci sono tanti tipi di pizza quanti ce ne sono di formaggio.

There are as many types of pizza as there are of cheese. This boy seems to me as intelligent as his brother. This style is as well-known in Italy as abroad. He lost more shares than he acquired. When two clauses are directly correlated: The more I hear her talk, the more I am convinced she is right.

The more the merrier. The more serious the events, the greater the need for original solutions. When they are used with a noun, the definite article is not used with the adjective in modern Italian. However, when the noun is understood, or when the superlative is an adverb and thus no noun is involved , the article is used, e. She bought the biggest possible ice-cream. A man, the oldest of them all, came towards us. I will answer as soon as possible.

The following construction is R2—3 and does not strictly express the idea of superlative but simply emphasizes the quality of the item in question. In the negative it is decidedly ironic: We witnessed a most strange show. Such adjectives are used as normal adjectives, usually after the noun, e. Ha comprato un gelato grandissimo. She bought a very big ice-cream. Such forms are characteristic of R3. A number of common adjectives have both regular and irregular forms of the comparative and superlative: This boy is the best-natured in the class.

In R1—2 meglio is often used instead of migliore. This usage should not be imitated, e. For economic news, this newspaper is better than that one. They are anteriore, esteriore, inferiore, interiore, posteriore, superiore, ulteriore, e. Dormiva sul sedile posteriore della macchina. He was asleep in the back seat of the car.

Some of these irregular comparatives also have irregular superlative forms, some of which retain a superlative meaning, e. But these and many other words which, strictly speaking, cannot be modified can acquire the superlative ending, especially in informal registers cf. Changes in word order are not random but reflect differences in meaning or emphasis.

These may at times be subtle, but are important to the message being communicated. In general, Italian uses word order for stylistic effects, where English often relies on effects of the voice in writing, these are shown by italics and other conventions.

One important principle is that new or important information is normally placed at the end of the sentence in Italian, and other elements will be arranged accordingly. Il mio computer ha un guasto. My computer has a fault. There is often nothing in front of the verb in Italian. With transitive verbs and other verbs that take avere, this is because the subject can be omitted if it is clear from the verb ending or the context: Ho visto Luigi ieri. I saw Luigi yesterday. He is better than the last time I saw him.

Subjects often come after the verb. This is common in the following cases: Hanno vinto i candidati alternativi. The alternative candidates have won. It has been a busy night, as those who have been watching us know. Sono aumentate le tasse su tutti i beni di consumo. Taxes on all consumer goods have gone up. Sono state identificate le persone responsabili. The people responsible have been identified. Si sono verificati incidenti preoccupanti.

Worrying incidents have occurred. Mi piacciono tutte le opere di Verdi. Ci manca la tua voce. We miss the sound of your voice. Mi fanno male i piedi. This inversion is very common in speech, since it allows speakers to emphasize whichever elements of the sentence they wish. In R3, the inversion can be done without any other changes to the sentence. Preoccupazioni puristiche — nel senso ottocentesco del termine — la Crusca non ebbe M. The Crusca Academy did not have puristic concerns in the nineteenth-century sense of the term.

Gli spaghetti li ha fatti mia nonna. My grandmother made the spaghetti. This is very much like saying Gli spaghetti sono stati fatti da mia nonna. Consider also these examples: Don Fabrizio quella sensazione la conosceva da sempre Tomasi di Lampedusa. Don Fabrizio had always known that sensation.

A me non mi piace R1—2. In R1 an indirect object is sometimes moved to the left without its preposition. The repeating pronoun makes the meaning clear. This is usually considered ungrammatical, e.

To him that has, shall be given. Chiara, non le ho mica detto niente R1. The following construction is R1 and usually considered ungrammatical: Often a pause before the object makes it seem almost an afterthought to remind the listener of the topic at hand which the speaker assumes was common knowledge to start with.

The emphasis is on what precedes this moved object, often the verb. This construction has a feeling It is confined to speech and should be used with care. Do you want a coffee? Lo porto domani, il dolce. Non bisogna farla chiacchierare la gente G. The Italian construction is very widely used in speech and there are important differences between the English and Italian constructions. Sei tu che devi chiedere scusa. When is it that you are leaving for Canada? To give it particular prominence it may be moved to other positions in the sentence, especially before the verb.

Note the shift in emphasis between the two clauses in the following sentence: She speaks Italian well. She speaks Italian very well. She speaks Italian with great confidence. The adverb anche comes immediately before the item it refers to. Note the effect of the change of position in the following: Eugenio anche scrive poesie in italiano as well as reading them. Eugenio scrive anche poesie in italiano as well as novels.

Eugenio scrive poesie anche in italiano as well as English poems. However, the difference in position always carries a difference in meaning. In many cases this is a subtle nuance of emphasis or style associated with a particular register, but in others the difference is between distinct concepts and would require different words in English. The basic position for adjectives is after the noun. Here they perform their essential function — to describe something and restrict the meaning of the noun.

When adjectives come before nouns, they acquire a more rhetorical flavour and may express metaphorical meanings. One adjective An adjective after a noun adds information that helps to identify the noun in question, often by contrasting it with other possible or potential nouns. An adjective before a noun gives additional information of a subjective nature about the noun: All adjectives follow the noun if they have some other element depending on them, e.

They express nationality, color, religious or political affiliation etc. Il Manzoni cattolico refers to Alessandro Manzoni after his conversion to Catholicism, as opposed to his earlier, anticlerical period.

To say il cattolico Manzoni is to assume the reader knows that Manzoni was a Catholic and alludes to this fact as part of a particular interpretation. These adjectives are very common and express generic value judgments: In line with what has been said above, when these adjectives come after a noun they express their more usual, literal and simpler meaning. When they come before a noun, they express metaphorical and more nuanced meanings.

This is a factual play. This is a real comedy! If each adjective adds separate information, they are separated by commas and the word e. If the adjectives are descriptive or subjective as mentioned above, they may come before the noun, e. In English they are added to the left. However, if the series gets long, a new adjective, that would have gone at the end of the list, can be added before the noun, e.

R1 Give me another ten or twenty minutes! Avrai il tempo per uscire stasera? No is also used in sentences to sum up a negative alternative: Ma vuoi venire o no?

But do you want to come or not? Dimmi se ti piace o no Note the R1—2 alternative: Dimmi se ti piace o meno. Tell me if you like it or not.

If no applies to one particular word, it usually follows that word, e. Andrei volentieri al Luna Park, ma con te no cf. Have you all received the invitation? Sono tutti eligibili, studenti e no. All are eligible, students and non-students. A common, but less correct, alternative is to use non: All are in agreement, politicians and non-politicians or politicians and others.

Not everyone is in agreement. I cannot believe you Non posso non crederti. I cannot but believe you. With verbs of opinion and intention, moving the non does not significantly change the basic meaning, e. Non vorrei che tu ti preoccupassi. Vorrei che tu non ti preoccupassi.

These expressions usually negate an idea which has been referred to, explicitly or implicitly, in the context, and usually lead to a different or opposing idea being put forward, e. A negative sentence in Italian must always have one negative item before the verb, even if there are one or more negative words after it. Usually the negative words listed above follow the verb, e. There is no reason to believe it. There was no more wine. Non ho manco capito R1. Non ho punto capito.

Non ho parlato con lei: I have not seen him nor do I wish to see him. Non desidero che partire R3. In R1—2 this would be Voglio solo partire. Neither my wife nor I went there. Mai may precede the verb for emphasis in R2—3, e. Mai che abbia un pensiero gentile cf. He never has a kind thought. It normally comes first in R1 in Sicily: Lui disse che mai aveva pensato che. Non ho punto or punta voglia di uscire. I have no desire to go out.

Manco is most common is the South, mica in the North. In R1 they may be used without a preceding non: There are many other reinforcing negatives, usually confined to speech, e.

Che cosa hai fatto ieri sera? What did you do last night? Many thanks — It was nothing. Give me the keys! La conosci la sorella di Mario? Certain negative words can be used without non to have a positive meaning this is in fact their historically older meaning , e.

Vado a fare la spesa, hai bisogno di niente? Have you ever heard of the Harpies? Se ti ricorderai mai di me, scrivimi. If you ever remember me, write to me. Did you meet my cousin again? Note these R1 uses of niente: Non ho niente voglia di uscire. Senza counts as a negative word in that it can be followed by one or more negative items, e. He left without saying anything to anyone.

Che cosa non hanno fatto gli amici per aiutarlo! I am staying here until you tell me the truth. I will do as I said, unless there are good reasons for changing plans. Il Presidente intervenne per timore che la situazione non peggiorasse R3.

The President intervened for fear that the situation might deteriorate. Here is a list illustrating the most common prefixes. It is difficult to predict which prefix will be used with a particular word — use a dictionary! Non ha detto parola.

She did not say a word. Non ha aperto bocca. He did not open his mouth did not say a word. Non ha chiuso occhio. She did not sleep a wink. However, it is much more limited in its uses than the English progressive tenses. In many situations where English uses a progressive present or imperfect, it is just as common in Italian to use a simple tense. Thus, although this Italian construction is becoming more widely used in Italy, it should not be overused by the learner, since it is only used to make the action more vivid, actual, or relevant to the situation at hand.

What is Elena doing? She is talking on the telephone. Rosaria is living in Naples. Chiara sta vivendo un brutto momento. Chiara is going through a hard time. He had been waiting for an hour when they finally showed up. La bandiera viene abbassata in questo momento. The flag is being lowered at this moment.

Il tuo italiano sta migliorando giorno per giorno. Your Italian is improving day by day. This usage is colloquial and is most common in parts of the South: In questi tempi sto lavorando molto. Stare a is R1—2 and is most common in the South, while essere dietro a is R1 and is most common in the North.

They are not normally used with verbs of motion. Tommaso ha lavorato a casa per due ore. Tommaso was working at home for two hours. This expresses a continuing action or series of actions during a period of time, especially where the action has a cumulative effect, e.

Il governo va raccogliendo consensi per il progetto di legge. The government is gathering support for the bill. The room was filling with people. In the s the party gradually strengthened its links with the unions. Sometimes andare expresses actual movement and the gerund should be thought of as performing its normal function.

Va chiedendo le stesse cose a tutti. He keeps asking everyone the same things. Va chiedendo soldi in tutte le case del paese. He is going to all the houses in the village asking for money. Often venire preserves some notion of movement, either physically towards the speaker or figuratively towards some end point or person benefiting from the action, e.

La barca si veniva avvicinando alla riva. The boat was coming towards the shore implies the speaker is on the shore. La barca si andava avvicinando alla riva.

The boat was approaching the shore moving either towards or away from the speaker. In those months, a situation of general instability was coming into being. English tends to use a verb to express manner and a preposition to express direction. In Italian, the verb normally expresses direction, while manner is expressed by an adverbial phrase or a gerund. He hobbled back to the kitchen. She swam across the river. Ha attraversato la campagna a piedi.

He walked through the countryside. Ha salito le scale di corsa. She ran up the stairs. Ha sceso le scale in punta di piedi. He tiptoed down the stairs. He crawled to the wall. Common direction verbs in Italian cf. Such movement, towards a destination, is expressed by a 21 Verbs of movement generic direction verb plus an adverbial phrase or a gerund. English often uses one and the same verb in both cases, e.

He walked in the city center for an hour. He walked to the city center in an hour. Did you walk or drive? The following table contains common manner verbs, with some adverbial phrases typically used to express the same movement when a destination is specified.

These manner verbs, though intransitive, imply deliberate action by the subject and therefore all take the auxiliary avere cf. Manner verbs Manner phrases to crawl strisciare strisciando, carponi to cycle andare etc. Hanno passeggiato attraverso i campi. They strolled through the fields i. Ho camminato fino al centro. I went for a walk as far as the city center.

Abbiamo guidato lungo la costa. We drove along the coast. All transitive verbs take avere. All reflexive verbs cf section 24 , and verbs in the passive cf. The problem lies with intransitive verbs. Some take avere, some take essere, and some can take either. In general, avere is used with verbs whose subject is involved in performing an act more or less deliberately, whereas essere is used where the subject of the verb is seen not so much as performing an action as undergoing an event or being affected by the event.

All verbs in this section take essere if the prefix riis added to them. A number of verbs in this list are often used today with avere instead of essere, especially in informal registers. For suonare, see section Essere is often considered to be high register or typical of central Italian usage. Gli sono piovute addosso disgrazie a non finire.

No end of bad luck poured down on him. But lampeggiare and tuonare take avere, e. The traffic light must be broken: Il predicatore ha tuonato contro il malcostume generale R3. The preacher railed against the widespread immorality.

The conductor began the concert with a speech. The concert began at eight on the dot. They take avere when followed by an infinitive even one that would take essere , e. Gli ospiti hanno continuato ad arrivare per tutto il pomeriggio. The guests kept arriving all afternoon. However, cominciare may take essere in R2—3 when used with a verb that takes essere, especially if the subject comes after the verb, e.

Sono cominciati a volare insulti. Insults began to fly. La nonna ha vissuto una vita coraggiosa. The grandmother lived a courageous life. The grandmother lived courageously. The experience aged my father by ten years.

At that moment my father aged by ten years. Il viaggio in Italia ha migliorato il tuo italiano. The trip to Italy has improved your Italian. Your Italian has improved thanks to your trip to Italy. The past participle with essere is usually felt more as an adjective, e. Abbiamo cotto la pasta. We cooked the pasta. The pasta cooked for eight minutes exactly. The pasta is cooked: This trend seems to be spreading. For the following verbs it is well established: As a transitive verb, it means to clear a place of people ; as intransitive with essere, it means to disperse; as a reflexive, it means to become empty.

La polizia ha sfollato il teatro. The police cleared the theatre. The people dispersed without panic. The theater emptied quickly.

They take avere or essere in accordance with changes of meaning. Abbiamo corso molti rischi nel venire qua. We have run many risks in coming here. I skipped lunch because I was busy. Ho scorso rapidamente il giornale. I skimmed the newspaper.

Traffic flowed well for the entire holiday period. The patient has worsened since last night. The economic situation has worsened. A number of verbs may take avere when the subject is the container or source of the emission, and essere when the subject is the thing being emitted, e. The lake evaporated this summer. The alcohol evaporated during the cooking. A similar verb is abbondare, which often takes avere when the subject is the person or thing which has something in abundance, essere when the subject is the thing in abundance, e.

Abbiamo abbondato la dispensa ha abbondato di provviste. We had the pantry had plenty of provisions. I viveri sono abbondati durante il viaggio. The food was plentiful during the trip.

Abbiamo convenuto sul prezzo. We agreed on the price. The price suited me. Queste scarpe hanno durato molto a lungo. These shoes have lasted a long time. The film lasted two hours. I labored hard to solve the problem. He has become unsociable lit. Secondo i giornali, avrebbe evaso le tasse per anni. According to the papers, he is alleged to have evaded his tax for years. We saw him in the piazza, but he fled without saying hello.

Il tiranno ha incrudelito contro la popolazione intera. The tyrant grew cruel following the popular uprising. Il problema ha interessato tutta una generazione di giovani. The issue affected a whole generation of young people. Gli sono interessate tutte le questioni ambientali. All the environmental issues interested them. Ho mancato la porta di poco. I just missed the goal. She was not at school for three days. Sono passato davanti a casa tua.

I passed in front of your house. Ha proceduto da persona onesta. He behaved like an honest person. He has progressed considerably. Ha scampato il pericolo per fortuna. She avoided the danger through good luck. She survived the massacre in which her whole family perished.

Abbiamo scattato tante foto del Foro. We took lots of photos of the Forum. We jumped to our feet when the President came in. Il vento ha schiantato le cime degli alberi. The wind snapped off the tops of the trees. Siamo schiantati dalle risate. Ho scivolato sul ghiaccio. I slipped on the ice.

You slipped away and no one noticed. The glass slipped through my hands. Ha servito a tavola in casa di nobili.

He served at table in a noble house. His advice was no use at all. Ti hanno sfilato il portafoglio dalla tasca. They sneaked your wallet from your pocket. Sono sfilati in corteo. They filed past in a procession. Ha suonato il telefono. His words resounded in the empty hall. Midday has just rung. Io ho suonato il violino quando ero a scuola.

I played the violin when I was at school. If the verb that follows takes essere, the modals may take essere R2—3 or avere R1—2.

This may also occur with sapere but only in higher registers, e. If the infinitive is essere or in the passive, the auxiliary is avere, e. She should have been here by now. Nonostante tutto, ha dovuto partire. Despite everything, she had to was obliged to leave. Non voleva partire, ma ha dovuto. Ho vestito me stesso e poi i bambini vs Mi sono vestito I dressed myself and then the children vs I got dressed note: The direct object of a transitive verb becomes the subject of the passive.

The passive with essere may be used in all tenses and moods, and with modals: Le innovazioni caravaggesche furono adottate da artisti di molti paesi. I think bookings have already been closed. Questa proposta potrebbe essere riformulata per la prossima riunione.

This proposal could be reworked for the next meeting. Venire may be used as auxiliary only in the simple tenses, indicative and subjunctive, i. It is characteristic of R2—3, e. La mostra viene aperta alle 4. This only occurs with the simple tenses, i. It is only found in the third person, in all registers: Il modulo va riempito in ogni sua parte. The form must be completed in all sections. La pasta andava tolta prima. The pasta should have been taken off the heat sooner.

The agent is not usually expressed with the andare passive. If an agent is to be expressed with a passive involving obligation, dovere is used, e. Il modulo deve essere riempito dal genitore o chi ne fa le veci. The form must be completed by the parent or guardian.

Andare is also used as an alternative to essere, and without any notion of obligation, with a few verbs expressing a negative result such as loss or damage, e. This occurs in all tenses, e. The manuscript was lost in the sixteenth century. Molti quadri sono andati distrutti durante la guerra. Many paintings were destroyed during the war.

If the passive action is expressed by a noun or adjective, the agent is preceded by da parte di, e. La prospettiva fu usata da Brunelleschi. Perspective was used by Brunelleschi. The use of perspective by Brunelleschi was the beginning of Renaissance art. A Giuseppe sono stati mandati i risultati sbagliati. Giuseppe was sent the wrong results.

She has been asked to speak about her experiences in Italy. In informal speech, other ways of placing the emphasis on the object are preferred. Gli spaghetti sono stati fatti da mia zia. Gli spaghetti li ha fatti mia zia. An impersonal subject may be used see section A Giuseppe hanno mandato i risultati sbagliati. Reflexive verbs always take the auxiliary essere, except in the case mentioned in section The reflexive pronoun is omitted when the reflexive verb is an infinitive depending on fare or lasciare, e.

Lo hanno fatto pentire not pentirsi delle sue parole. They made him regret his words. Direct reflexives are usually defined as taking unstressed reflexive pronouns before the verb and essere in compound tenses. However, they may also take stressed pronouns cf. This is increasingly common in R1—2. In compound tenses, the past participle agrees with the subject or with the object, R3: Chiara had herself a lovely plate of spaghetti.

The participle agrees with a direct object if it is a preceding pronoun, e. The biscuits, it was Emilia who ate them up. An indirect reflexive is the usual way of expressing possession of parts of body or items of clothing, e. Some verbs have an indirect reflexive form which carries a subtle but perceptible change of meaning, in terms of greater involvement by the subject.

This usage seems to be increasing in R1—2. I prigionieri si accusavano del delitto. The prisoners accused each other of the crime. They are all intransitive, e. This usage appears to be growing cf. The reflexive as intransitive requires a preposition.

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